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Zrod Národnej futbalovej ligy


14 mužov schúlených v autosalóne Jordan a Hupmobile v centre mesta Canton v štáte Ohio v noci 17. septembra 1920 bolo konečne pripravených uzavrieť dohodu. Prišli do predajne Ralpha Haya nie kvôli hľadaniu novej sady kolies, ale novej profesionálnej futbalovej ligy, aby ich zachránili pred sebou.

Do roku 1920 zostal profesionálny futbal dôkladne zatienený univerzitnou hrou a baštou obmedzenou väčšinou na malé stredozápadné priemyselné mestá. Ešte horšie pre majiteľov tímov bolo, že krvácali peniaze kvôli vysokým platom hráčov a intenzívnym vojnám s ponukami, pretože pytliačili hráčov z iných tímov. Majitelia týchto nezávislých profesionálnych tímov túžili po silnej lige, akú mala bejzbal, aby získali väčšiu kontrolu nad športom a svojimi financiami.

Hay, majiteľ úradujúceho šampióna Ohio League Canton Bulldogs, pozval zástupcov ďalších troch štátnych tímov na organizačné stretnutie do jeho showroomu 20. augusta, kde sa dohodli na širokom obryse nového združenia. Podľa Canton Evening Repository by cieľom nového podniku bolo „všetkými spôsobmi zvýšiť úroveň profesionálneho futbalu, eliminovať ponuky pre hráčov medzi konkurenčnými klubmi a zabezpečiť spoluprácu pri tvorbe harmonogramov“.

Takmer o mesiac neskôr bola dohoda pripravená na uzavretie. Hay zhromaždil zástupcov z 11 profesionálnych futbalových klubov posypaných cez Ohio, Illinois, Indianu a New York: Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles, Decatur Staleys, Hammond Pros, Massillon Tigers, Muncie Flyers, Racine Cardinals, Rochester Jeffersons a Rock Ostrovní nezávislí. (Tímy, ktoré boli neznáme, dokonca v zápisnici zo schôdze omylom uvádzali kardinálov, ktorí hrali domáce zápasy v normálnom parku na chicagskej Racine Avenue, ako z rovnomenného mesta Wisconsin.) V parnej noci sa nepodarilo vtesnať do Hayovej kancelárie “Priekopníci futbalu, vrátane Jima Thorpeho a Georga Halasa, sedeli na bežeckých doskách a nárazníkoch automobilov s 3 000 dolármi na podlahe predvádzacej miestnosti a chytili studené ľadové fľaše z ľadového vedra, keď uzavreli dohodu.

Podľa zápisnice zo schôdze, napísanej na hlavičkovom papieri profesionálneho futbalového tímu Akron, bol prvý predmet podnikania nepriaznivý - vystúpenie Massillonu pred oficiálnym vytvorením ligy. Potom sa muži presťahovali a vyslali návrh na vytvorenie konfederácie známej ako Americká profesionálna futbalová asociácia (APFA). Nová liga potrebovala prezidenta, ktorý by viedol organizáciu a stal sa jej verejnou tvárou, a výber si vyžiadal malú diskusiu. Zástupcovia tímu jednomyseľne vybrali 32-ročného Thorpeho, hviezdu Canton Bulldogs, ktorého noviny, ako napríklad Milwaukee Journal, považovali za „najväčšieho športovca sveta“, hoci boli po jeho najlepších rokoch. Výber najväčšej atrakcie brány roštu skutočne nazbieral v novinách po celej krajine viac atramentu ako vytvorenie samotnej APFA.

Prvá hra, na ktorej sa zúčastnil tím APFA, sa odohrala 26. septembra 1920 v Douglas Parku na Rock Island v štáte Illinois, keď rodné mesto Independents sploštilo St. Paul Ideals 48-0. Prvé vzájomné súboje v lige sa odohrali o týždeň neskôr, keď Dayton zvíťazil nad Columbusom 14: 0 a Rock Island nalepilo Muncie 45: 0.

Aj keď boli rozmery roštu v roku 1920 rovnaké ako dnes, profesionálna hra bola celkom odlišná. Prihrávky dopredu boli zriedkavé, koučovanie mimo hry bolo zakázané a hráči súťažili v útoku i v obrane. Peniaze boli také tesné, že Halas nosil vybavenie, písal tlačové správy, predával lístky, zalepoval členky, hral a trénoval v klube Decatur. Na rozdiel od dnešného štandardného rozpisu 16 zápasov si kluby v roku 1920 naplánovali vlastných súperov a mohli hrať neligové a dokonca vysokoškolské tímy, ktoré sa započítavali do ich rekordov. Bez stanovených pokynov sa počet odohraných zápasov - a kvalita naplánovaných súperov - tímov APFA líšila a liga si neudržala oficiálne poradie.

Američania Buffala, Chicago Tigers, Columbus Panhandles a Detroit Heralds sa k lige pripojili pred koncom sezóny, čím sa celkový počet tímov zvýšil na 14, ale úvodná sezóna bola boj. Hrám sa venovala malá pozornosť fanúšikov - a ešte menej tlače. Podľa knihy Roberta W. Petersona „Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football“ mali hry APFA priemerný počet 4 241 ľudí. Stanovy asociácie vyzvali tímy na zaplatenie vstupného poplatku 100 dolárov, ale nikto to nikdy neurobil. Muncie odohral iba jeden zápas pred vypadnutím pred koncom sezóny, ktorá sa skončila 19. decembra.

Na konci sezóny sa neuskutočnilo žiadne play -off - nieto ešte Super Bowl - a trvalo viac ako štyri mesiace, kým sa liga vôbec neobťažovala korunovať šampióna. Rovnako ako univerzitný futbal po celé desaťročia, APFA určila svojho víťaza hlasovaním. 30. apríla 1921 hlasovali zástupcovia tímov za Akron Pros, ktorí sezónu absolvovali bez prehry s ôsmimi víťazstvami a troma remízami, pričom získali iba sedem bodov, šampión napriek protestom tímov s jednou prehrou v Decature a Buffale, ktorý každý zviazal Akrona a získal viac víťazstiev. Víťazi získali pohár milujúci striebro, ktorý darovala spoločnosť Brunswick-Balke-Collender so športovými potrebami. Aj keď hráči nedostali prstene posiate diamantmi, dostali zlaté prstečky v tvare futbalu s nápisom „Majstri sveta“.

Majitelia tímov, ktorí potrebovali lídra s väčším obchodným talentom, nahradili Thorpe majiteľom Columbusa Panhandlea Joe Carrom a v roku 1922 sa APFA premenovala na Národnú futbalovú ligu. Kým 20. roky burácali, NFL prskalo. Vysokoškolský futbal zostal kráľom a pritiahol davy až 100 000 ľudí, zatiaľ čo franšízy NFL prichádzali a odchádzali. Až po podpise vysokoškolských fenoménov Red Grange v roku 1925 začal profesionálny futbal získavať na popularite.

Prvá sezóna NFL bola v kolektívnej športovej pamäti tak rýchlo zabudnutá, že v oficiálnych záznamoch ligy je šampionát 1920 označený za nerozhodnutý až do 70. rokov minulého storočia. Miesto pobytu Brunswick-Balke-Collender Cup, uvedené iba raz, nie je známe. Dedičstvo dvoch franšíz APFA však pokračuje. Racine Cardinals teraz hrajú v Arizone a Decatur Staleys sa v roku 1921 presťahovali do Chicaga a nasledujúci rok si zmenili meno na Medvede. Desať hráčov APFA spolu s Carrom je zaradených do siene slávy profesionálneho futbalu, ktorá svoje brány otvorila v roku 1963 neďaleko kantonského automobilového zastúpenia, z ktorého sa v roku 1920 zrodila NFL.


História národnej futbalovej ligy

The história národnej futbalovej ligy Jeho korene siahajú až do roku 1892, keď bývalému celoamerickému strážcovi Yaleovi Williamovi Heffelfingerovi Allegheny Athletic Association zaplatil 500 dolárov za účasť v zápase proti atletickému klubu Pittsburgh, čím sa stal vôbec prvým profesionálnym futbalistom. Avšak až v roku 1920 dosiahol americký futbal ligu všetkých skutočných orga

Členstvo v lige sa postupne stabilizovalo v priebehu 20. a 30. rokov 20. storočia, keď liga postupne prijala formálnejšiu organizáciu. Prvý oficiálny majstrovský zápas sa konal v roku 1933. NFL prestala podpisovať čiernych hráčov v roku 1927, ale po druhej svetovej vojne sa v roku 1946 znovu začlenila. Po vojne nasledovali ďalšie zmeny, z úradu prezidenta ligy sa stal silnejší post komisára, ktorý odzrkadľuje podobný krok v Major League Baseball. Tímy sa stali finančne životaschopnejšími, posledný tím sa skladal v roku 1952. Do roku 1958, keď sa majstrovská hra NFL v tejto sezóne stala známou ako „Najväčšia hra, aká sa kedy hrala“, sa NFL snažila stať sa jednou z najobľúbenejších športových líg v USA. Spojené štáty.

Konkurenčná Americká futbalová liga bola založená v roku 1959. Bola veľmi úspešná a vynútila si zlúčenie so staršou NFL, čo malo za následok značne rozšírenú ligu a vytvorenie Super Bowlu, ktorý sa stal najsledovanejším každoročným športovým podujatím v Spojené štáty. Liga sa naďalej rozširovala na súčasnú veľkosť 32 tímov. Séria pracovných dohôd v deväťdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia a stále viac veľkých televíznych zmlúv pomohli udržať ligu v jednej z najziskovejších v USA a od roku 1990 v USA jedinej významnej lige, aby sa zabránilo zásadnému prerušeniu práce.

Profesionálne futbalové tituly* Ώ]
(AFL, NFL a Super Bowl)
† = zaniknutý tím
Tím Tituly
Green Bay Packers 13
Chicago Bears 9
New York Giants 7
Pittsburgh Steelers 6
Washington Redskins 5
Indianapolis Colts 5
San Francisco 49ers 5
Dallas Cowboys 5
Cleveland Browns 4
Detroit Lions 4
Oakland Raiders 4
New England Patriots 3
Philadelphia Eagles 3
Louis Rams 3
Náčelníci mesta Kansas 3
Miami Dolphins 2
Arizona Cardinals 2
Canton Bulldogs † 2
Denver Broncos 2
Tennessee Titans 2
Buffalo účty 2
Akron Pros † 1
Baltimore Ravens 1
Cleveland Bulldogs † 1
Frankford Yellowjackets † 1
Minnesota Vikings 1
New York Jets 1
New Orleans Saints 1
Parný valec Providence † 1
Tampa Bay Buccaneers 1
San Diego nabíjačky 1


Prvé futbalové kluby

Futbalové kluby existujú už od 15. storočia, ale neorganizované a bez oficiálneho štatútu. Je preto ťažké rozhodnúť, ktorý bol prvým futbalovým klubom. Niektorí historici tvrdia, že to bol Foot-Ball Club založený v roku 1824 v Edinburghu. Prvé kluby často vytvárali bývalí študenti škôl a prvý tohto druhu bol založený v Sheffielde v roku 1855. Najstarším z profesionálnych futbalových klubov je anglický klub Notts County, ktorý bol založený v roku 1862 a existuje dodnes.

Dôležitým krokom pre vznik tímov bola industrializácia, ktorá viedla k tomu, že sa väčšie skupiny ľudí stretávali na miestach, ako sú továrne, krčmy a kostoly. Futbalové tímy boli založené vo väčších mestách a nové železnice ich mohli priviesť do iných miest.

Na začiatku futbalu dominovali tímy verejných škôl, ale neskôr tvorili väčšinu tímy zložené z pracovníkov. K ďalšej zmene došlo postupne, keď niektoré kluby boli ochotné zaplatiť najlepším hráčom, aby sa pripojili k svojmu tímu. Bol by to začiatok dlhého obdobia prechodu, nie bez trenia, v ktorom by sa hra rozvinula na profesionálnu úroveň.

Motiváciou platiacich hráčov bolo nielen vyhrať viac zápasov. V 80. rokoch 19. storočia sa záujem o hru posunul dopredu na úroveň, keď sa na zápasy predávali lístky. A nakoniec, v roku 1885 bol legalizovaný profesionálny futbal a o tri roky neskôr bola založená Futbalová liga. Počas prvej sezóny sa do ligy zapojilo 12 klubov, ale čoskoro sa začalo zaujímať viac klubov a súťaž sa následne rozšírila do viacerých divízií.

Britské tímy by boli dlho dominantné. Po niekoľkých desaťročiach budú kluby z Prahy, Budapešti a Sienny predovšetkým uchádzačmi o britskú dominanciu.

Ako pre mnoho vecí v histórii, ženy boli na dlhší čas vylúčené z účasti na hrách. Nie koncom 19. storočia začali ženy hrať futbal. Prvá oficiálna hra pre ženy sa konala v Inverness v roku 1888.


Zrod novej ligy

20. augusta 1920 v predajni Hupmobile v Cantone v štáte Ohio bola liga formalizovaná, pôvodne ako Americká profesionálna futbalová konferencia, spočiatku pozostávajúci iba z tímov Ohio League, aj keď niektoré z tímov odmietli účasť. [4] O mesiac neskôr, 17. septembra, bola liga premenovaná na Americká profesionálna futbalová asociácia, pričom k nim pribudli Buffalo a Rochester z newyorskej ligy a Detroit, Hammond (prímestský tím Chicaga) a niekoľko ďalších tímov z okolitých okruhov. Jedenásť zakladajúcich tímov pôvodne uzavrelo dohodu o pytliactve hráčov a vyhlásení šampióna na konci sezóny. Thorpe, zatiaľ čo stále hrá za Bulldogs, bol zvolený za prezidenta. Iba štyri zo zakladajúcich tímov dokončili rozvrh 1920 a neporazení Akron Pros si pripísali prvé prvenstvo. Členstvo v lige sa v roku 1921 zvýšilo na 22 tímov - vrátane viacerých newyorských -, ale v priebehu dvadsiatych rokov minulého storočia bolo členstvo nestabilné a liga nebola hlavným národným športom. 24. júna 1922 zmenila organizácia so sídlom v Columbuse v štáte Ohio konečný názov na Národnú futbalovú ligu. [5]

Dvaja charteroví členovia, Chicago Cardinals (teraz Arizona Cardinals) a Decatur Staleys (dnes Chicago Bears), stále existujú. Séria Green Bay Packers, založená v roku 1919, je najstarším tímom, ktorý nemení svoje pôsobisko, ale s ligovým zápasom začal až v roku 1921. V roku 1925 sa pridal tím New York Football Giants, v roku 1930 nasledoval Portsmouth Spartans a v roku 1934 sa presťahoval do Detroitu. stať sa levmi. [6] Franšíza Indianapolis Colts sleduje svoju históriu prostredníctvom niekoľkých predchodcov, vrátane jedného zo zakladajúcich tímov ligy - Dayton Triangles - je však považovaná za samostatnú franšízu od týchto tímov a bola založená ako Baltimore Colts v roku 1953. Napriek tomu, že pôvodné tímy NFL zastupujúce Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago a Detroit už neexistujú, pre tieto mestá boli odvtedy zriadené náhradné franšízy.

Počiatočné majstrovstvá boli udelené tímu s najlepším počtom prehratých a prehratých zápasov, spočiatku dosť náhodne, pretože niektoré tímy odohrali viac alebo menej zápasov ako ostatné, alebo plánované zápasy proti neligovým, amatérskym alebo vysokoškolským tímom, čo viedlo k rozhodnutiu o titule tiebreaker v roku 1921, sporný titul v roku 1925 a naplánovanie improvizovaného halového play off v roku 1932. Neexistencia pevnej ligovej štruktúry znamenala, že početné tímy boli pravidelne pridávané a odstraňované z ligy každý rok, pričom majiteľ franšízy by mohol obchodovať s jeho franšíza v jednom meste jeden za druhým (ako to bolo v prípade Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Bulldogs a Detroit Wolverines), a ak tím väčšieho trhu alebo etablovanejší chce hráča na vyššom trhu s menším trhom, môže ho vykúpiť tím úplne poskladá, aby získal práva na tohto hráča, ako to urobili New York Giants Wolverines v roku 1928, aby získali Bennyho Friedmana.

Na ligové stretnutia pred sezónou 1933 boli do NFL prijaté tri nové tímy, Piráti, Cincinnati Reds a Eagles. [7] [8] V NFL bolo vtedy desať tímov a na naliehanie Georga Prestona Marshalla bola s podporou Halasa NFL reorganizovaná na východnú a západnú divíziu. Vo východnej divízii boli Philadelphia Eagles, Brooklyn Dodgers, New York Giants, Boston Redskins a Pittsburgh Pirates. V západnej divízii boli Chicago Bears, Portsmouth Spartans, Chicago Cardinals, Green Bay Packers a Cincinnati Reds. Obaja majitelia okrem toho presvedčili ligu, aby sa dvaja víťazi divízií stretli v Majstrovská hra NFL. [9]

V roku 1934 sa všetky tímy z malého mesta, s výnimkou Green Bay Packers, presťahovali alebo boli nahradené tímami vo veľkých mestách, a dokonca aj Green Bay začal hrať časť svojho domáceho plánu v oveľa väčšom Milwaukee pre väčšiu podporu (prax, ktorú pokračovali až do 90. rokov minulého storočia). V roku 1941 sa sídlo spoločnosti presťahovalo z Columbusu v Ohiu do Chicaga. V prvých rokoch ligy mnoho tímov NFL namiesto vymýšľania pôvodných názvov tímov jednoducho zvolilo názov tímu Major League Baseball v rovnakom meste. Pittsburgh Steelers boli teda „Pittsburgh Pirates“ počas prvých siedmich rokov existencie a ďalšie tímy ako Brooklyn Dodgers, Cleveland Indians, Cincinnati Reds, Detroit Tigers, New York Yankees, Washington Senators a Buffalo Bisons reprezentovali NFL na jednom mieste. čas alebo iný. [10]

Ročný návrh vysokoškolských hráčov sa prvýkrát konal v roku 1936. [11] [12] Prvý televízny zápas NFL sa uskutočnil 22. októbra 1939 v zápase, v ktorom Eagles prehrali 23-14 s hostiteľom Dodgers na Ebbets Field. [13] [14] Práve počas tejto éry sa však NFL oddelila: v rokoch 1933 až 1945 v USA v profesionálnom futbale neexistovali žiadni čierni hráči, a to hlavne kvôli vplyvu Georga Prestona Marshalla, ktorý vstúpil do ligy v roku 1932 ako vlastník klubu Boston Braves. Ostatní majitelia NFL napodobňovali Marshallovu výlučne bielu politiku na zmiernenie južných fanúšikov a dokonca aj vtedy, keď bola v 50. rokoch prelomená farebná bariéra NFL, zostali Marshallove Washingtonské Redskiny celobiele, kým neboli donútené k integrácii Kennedyho administratívou v roku 1962. [15] Napriek jeho fanatizmus, Marshall bol vybraný ako zakladajúci člen NFL-inšpirovanej Siene slávy profesionálneho futbalu, predovšetkým kvôli mnohým inováciám (pevné plány, samostatné konferencie a majstrovské hry), ktoré Marshall počas svojho pôsobenia v lige povzbudzoval.

Vysokoškolský futbal bol tým väčším lákadlom, ale na konci druhej svetovej vojny začal profesionálny futbal súperiť s vysokou školou o pozornosť fanúšikov. Zmeny pravidiel a inovácie, ako napríklad formácia T, viedli k hre s rýchlejším tempom a vyšším skóre. Liga sa v roku 1945 rozšírila aj zo svojej východnej a stredozápadnej kolísky, Cleveland Rams sa presťahoval do Los Angeles a stal sa prvou veľkou ligovou športovou franšízou na západnom pobreží. [16] V roku 1950 NFL prijala tri tímy-Cleveland Browns, San Francisco 49ers a Baltimore Colts-zo zaniknutej celoamerickej futbalovej konferencie, ktorá sa rozšírila do trinástich klubov. Na tri mesiace v roku 1950 bola liga premenovaná na Národno-americká futbalová liga, ktoré bolo následne zmenené späť. [17] [18] V roku 1958 hrali Baltimore Colts a New York Giants o prvenstvo „Najväčšia hra, akú kedy hrali“. Keďže ide o prvý celonárodne vysielaný futbalový zápas, jeho vzrušujúci koniec výrazne zvýšil popularitu NFL. Vďaka týmto prielomom si profesionálny futbal konečne získal miesto ako hlavný šport.

Rasové menšiny

Predchodca NFL, Americká profesionálna futbalová asociácia, mal niekoľko menšinových hráčov, vrátane afroamerických hráčov: v rokoch 1920 až 1926 sa do mužstiev NFL hodilo deväť čiernych hráčov. Bolo tiež bežné, vzhľadom na počet talentovaných hráčov, ktorí boli produkovaní futbalovým tímom Carlisle Indian School, vidieť tímy (vo vnútri aj mimo NFL), aby otvorene predávali domorodých Američanov, v skutočnosti Indiáni z Oorangu v rokoch 1922 až 1923 pozostávali výlučne z indiánskeho talentu. Beh späť Walter Achiu a quarterback Arthur Matsu, obaja z Dayton Triangles, boli prvými ázijsko-americkými hráčmi v NFL, ktorí vstúpili do ligy v roku 1927, respektíve 1928. Ignacio Molinet a Jess Rodriguez boli prvými hispánskymi hráčmi NFL a každý odohral jednu sezónu v rokoch 1927 a 1929.

Keďže však Carlisle v roku 1918 skončil, talentovaná skupina Indiánov vyschla. Medzitým boli všetci čierni hráči NFL (vrátane budúcej siene slávy Fritza Pollarda) z nevysvetlených dôvodov súhrnne vyhodení pred sezónou 1927. Od roku 1928 do roku 1932 sa v lige nenachádzal viac ako jeden čierny hráč a nikto neodohral viac ako dve sezóny. V roku 1933 boli dvaja: Joe Lillard a Ray Kemp. Lillarda vyhodili z klubu Chicago Cardinals za boje, zatiaľ čo Kemp odišiel, aby pokračoval v úspešnej trénerskej kariére. Tieto kroky zanechali ligu ako čisto bielu a majiteľ Bostonu Redskins George Preston Marshall údajne využil svoj tlak, aby to tak vydržalo aj niekoľko rokov, aj keď vnútorná politika a bratříčkovosť každého mužstva, ako aj narastajúca vlna rasizmu v ... Spojené štáty ako celok tiež zohrali významnú úlohu. Dokonca aj počas vojnových rokov, keď veľká časť talentu NFL bola v zámorských bojoch proti druhej svetovej vojne, boli hráči ako Kenny Washington, ktorí zostali v USA, stále ignorovaní v prospech bielych hráčov s bežne oslabujúcimi zdravotnými problémami, ako je čiastočná slepota. [ potrebná citácia ]

K integrácii NFL došlo iba vtedy, keď sa Cleveland Rams chceli presťahovať do Los Angeles a miesto konania, Los Angeles Coliseum, vyžadovalo, aby integrovali svoj tím. Potom podpísali dvoch čiernych hráčov, Kennyho Washingtona a Woodyho Stroda. [19] Ostatné tímy NFL nakoniec nasledovali tento príklad, ale Marshall odmietol integrovať Redskins, kým si to Kennedyho administratíva nevynútila ako podmienku využívania štadióna D.C. (teraz štadión RFK). Napriek tejto otvorenej zaujatosti bol Marshall zvolený do Siene slávy profesionálneho futbalu NFL v roku 1963. V roku 1946 podpísali Cleveland Browns z konkurenčnej profesionálnej futbalovej ligy, All-America Football Conference, dvoch čiernych hráčov. V roku 1960 nový konkurent NFL, Americká futbalová liga, aktívne najímal hráčov z menších prevažne čiernych vysokých škôl, ktoré NFL do značnej miery ignorovala, čím dala čiernym hráčom týchto škôl možnosť hrať profesionálny futbal. Skoré tímy AFL mali v priemere viac černochov ako ich náprotivky v NFL. [20]

Napriek predchádzajúcej segregačnej politike NFL však jasná konkurenčná výhoda tímov AFL s liberálnymi podpisovými zásadami ovplyvnila návrhy NFL. V roku 1969 porovnanie fotografií z majstrovských tímov týchto dvoch líg ukázalo, že náčelníci AFL hrali 23   čiernych z 51   hráčov (45%), zatiaľ čo NFL Vikings mali 11   čiernych, zo 42 a#160 hráčov (26%) na fotke. Hráči Chiefs boli citovaní, keď uviedli, že jedným motivačným faktorom ich porážky Vikingov v Super Bowle IV bola ich hrdosť na ich rôznorodý tím. Nedávne prieskumy ukázali, že súčasná NFL po fúzii je približne 67-71% ne-bielych (to zahŕňa Afroameričanov, Polynézanov, nebielych hispáncov, Ázijcov a ľudí zmiešanej rasy), výrazne vyššia ako národný priemer. niektoré polohy, ako napríklad zákruta a beh dozadu, sú takmer úplne čierne.


História Národnej futbalovej ligy

Založenie Národnej futbalovej ligy výrazne ovplyvnilo sociálnu kultúru Američanov. Dosiahlo sa to vďaka americkej láske a hrdosti na hry a súťaž, nárast popularity futbalu v celej Amerike, najmä na vysokých a stredných školách, práce televízie, nárast talentu športovcov, začiatok platenia športovcov a rozdelenie NFL na dve divízie. (Rivalita v rámci rivality oddelenej regiónmi USA.)

Na východe USA bola hra veľmi podobná futbalu vynájdená a hrala sa v polovici 19. storočia. Skladalo sa z 30 a viac hráčov. Cieľom hry bolo kopnúť loptu cez bránkovú čiaru druhého tímu. Táto hra sa stala mimoriadne obľúbenou a platili pre ňu ďalšie prísnejšie pravidlá. Táto hra sa volala futbal. V tejto hre hrali dva tímy a oba tímy mali odlišné pravidlá hry. Jeden podľa McGillovho pravidla a druhý podľa Harvardovho pravidla. Harvardove pravidlá boli skôr ako futbal a McGillove pravidlá skôr ako rugby. Beh s loptou a zdolávanie prekážok boli hlavným dôvodom, prečo bola táto hra predstavená nielen na Harvarde, ale aj na ďalších východných vysokých školách po celých Spojených štátoch.

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Vylepšovanie hry bolo v tejto dobe na prvom mieste. Keď sa tento rugbyový futbal stal populárnym, Walter Camp zohral významnú úlohu pri vytváraní pravidiel, ktoré zvýšili akciu a konkurenciu tejto hry.

"Camp bol do značnej miery zodpovedný za zavedenie systému pádov a yardov, ktoré majú získať, a za zavedenie stredového úderu na rozohrávača." Pomáhal tiež nastaviť systém bodovania, v ktorom dotyky, konverzie, góly v teréne a bezpečia dosahujú rôzny počet bodov. “ (365) Láska a hrdosť na hru sa vyvíjala a tak sa vyvíjala aj súťaž. Stredné školy a vysoké školy organizovali tímy a konkurencia sa zvyšovala. V skutočnosti bola konkurencia taká veľká, že sa šport stal násilným a nebezpečným kvôli nedostatku ochrany pred riešením a blokovaním. Keďže hráči utrpeli ťažké zranenia kvôli nedostatku adekvátneho vybavenia a bez prilieb, Theodore Roosevelt zdôraznil, že je potrebné vykonať zmeny, aby bola táto bezpečnejšia hra.

Založenie hry „futbal“ bolo vyvinuté v polovici 19. storočia, ale v skutočnosti bolo zorganizované až v 20. rokoch 20. storočia. „17. septembra 1920 sa skupina mužov zhromaždila v Cantone v štáte Ohio v predvádzacej miestnosti Hupmobile Ralpha Haya, majiteľa rodného mesta Bulldogs. Výsledok stretnutia priniesol zrod Národnej futbalovej ligy. “ (Profootball)

Profesionálny futbal sa začal v roku 1892, keď Williamovi „Pudgeovi“ Heffelfingerovi, bývalej hviezde Yale, bola 12. novembra v Pittsburghu v Pensylvánii vyplatená čiastka 500 dolárov za odohranie jedného zápasu za atletického spolupracovníka Alleghenyho. Táto hra znamenala začiatok profesionálneho futbalu. V roku 1920 bol názov APFA (Americká profesionálna futbalová asociácia) kvôli organizácii športu neskôr zmenený na NFL (Národná futbalová liga).

V roku 1925 začal profesionálny futbal priťahovať mnoho fanúšikov a priaznivcov podpisom a platením skvelým športovcom, aby hrali vo svojich tímoch. Tento šport by nakoniec pritiahol viac ako 350 000 fanúšikov, aby sa prišli pozrieť na hry toho roku. Televízia tiež hrala veľkú úlohu pri získavaní ľudí a zarábaní peňazí. "Televízne siete zaplatili milióny dolárov za vysielanie hier." (367) Televízia dodnes zohráva významnú úlohu pri organizovaní futbalových podujatí, ako je Super Bowl, ktorý je každoročne televíznym podujatím po celom svete.

V tridsiatych rokoch minulého storočia bola NFL rozdelená na dve divízie, západnú a východnú. Majstri každej divízie by hrali o prvý titul majstra sveta v profesionálnom futbale. V polovici štyridsiatych rokov minulého storočia bola založená konferencia All-American Football Conference, ktorá pozostávala z osemčlennej ligy a potom z 13-člennej ligy po zlúčení NFL. Nakoniec sa AFL (liga amerického futbalu), osemčlenná liga, ktorá bola založená v šesťdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia, rozhodla po šiestich rokoch zlúčiť s NFL a vytvoriť konferenciu amerického futbalu a národnú futbalovú konferenciu.

Založenie Národnej futbalovej ligy ovplyvnilo sociálnu kultúru USA. Futbal nie je len zábavný šport, ale je to jeden z najobľúbenejších a najužitočnejších športov Američanov súčasnosti. Mnoho ľudí súhlasilo s tým, že športovanie, najmä futbal, buduje charakter, učí tímovú prácu, núti človeka učiť sa vyhrávať a prehrávať, učí disciplíne a drží mladšie a staršie deti mimo ulíc. Milióny a milióny Američanov sa chodia pozerať na futbalové zápasy každý rok a vždy sa pozerajú na futbal v nedeľu. Pre niektorých je to takmer ako tradícia. Láska a hrdosť na túto hru budú vždy v mnohých srdciach nielen v Národnej futbalovej lige, ale aj na stredných školách, vysokých školách a bahnitých poliach kdekoľvek.


Spoločnosť Arrowhead na medzinárodnom kongrese pečene EASL predstavuje ďalšie klinické údaje o skúmaní liečby ARO-AAT u pacientov s ochorením pečene alfa-1.

1800 až 1900: Kto založil NFL?

Prvá známa profesionálna futbalová udalosť sa konala v roku 1892. Americký futbal ako šport existoval už predtým, ale zápas medzi Allegheny Athletic Association a Pittsburgh Athletic Club v Pensylvánii v roku 1892 bol prvým prípadom, keď hráč dostal zaplatené peniaze za hranie. V tomto prípade bol hráčom William & quotPudge & quot Heffelfinger, absolvent Yale, ktorý hral za AAA.

V rokoch nasledujúcich po prvom profesionálnom hráčovi došlo k niekoľkým pokusom dostať oficiálnu profesionálnu futbalovú ligu od základov. V roku 1902 existovala dokonca jedna s názvom Národná futbalová liga, paradoxne s tímami bejzbalových hráčov Philadelphie. Ale nebolo veľa peňazí ani fanfár a liga bola čoskoro preč.

Vyskočili ďalšie miestne ligy s rôznym stupňom úspechu. Jednou bola Ohio League, známa tým, že na kantonských buldogoch mal svetového atléta Jima Thorpeho. Futbal bol stále obľúbenejší, ale nedostatok organizácie ho brzdil v ďalšom raste. Cítiac to, majitelia niekoľkých tímov z Ohio League, ako sú Bulldogs a Akron Pros, sa stretli na organizačnom stretnutí, ktoré viedlo k rozhodnutiu začať novú ligu.

Majitelia usporiadali druhé stretnutie, tentoraz prišli ďalšie tímy z New Yorku, Indiany a Illinois. Všetci títo majitelia sa rozhodli pre názov: Americká profesionálna futbalová asociácia. Za prezidenta pomenovali Jima Thorpeho. Toto boli zakladatelia ligy, ktorá sa stane NFL.

1920: Americká profesionálna futbalová asociácia

Tímy zo stretnutí, ktoré by boli jednými z prvých tímov AFPA, boli:

  • Akron Pros
  • Kantonskí buldoci
  • Indiáni z Clevelandu
  • Daytonské trojuholníky
  • Decatur Staleys
  • Hammond Pros
  • Muncie Flyers
  • Racine Cardinals
  • Rochester Jeffersons
  • Nezávislí na Rock Island

Pred začiatkom Americkej profesionálnej futbalovej asociácie a schválením prvej sezóny sa do ligy zapojili ďalšie štyri tímy  :

  • Buffalo, všetci Američania
  • Chicago Tigers
  • Columbus Panhandles
  • Herci z Detroitu

Napriek 14 tímom v lige si AFPA neudržala poradie v tejto sezóne. Play off sa nekonalo. Na konci sezóny asociácia udelila prvenstvo Akronovým profesionálom, ktorí zostali bez prehry a získali ਎ight víťazstvo - napriek tomu, že Buffalo All -Americans má  nine   a Decatur Staleys 10.

Tento nedostatok organizácie sa stal bežnou témou a kvôli nedostatku systému play -off bol šampionát ešte kontroverznejší. V roku 1921 sa z hry, ktorá mala byť iba exhibičným zápasom, stal medzitým medzi Buffalom a dnes Chicago Staleys tajbrejk, ktorý viedol k vyhláseniu Chicaga za ligového šampióna. Zavedený systém play -off bol vzdialený ešte desať rokov.

V priebehu 20. rokov bolo do AFPA pridaných viac tímov  , z ktorých sa niektoré   stali tímami, ktoré existujú dodnes. Green Bay Packers sa pripojili v roku 1921 a New York Giants v roku 1925. Tieto tímy spolu s Cardinals (teraz v Arizone) a Staleys (teraz Chicago Bears) sú stále tímami NFL.

V roku 1922 sa AFPA premenovala a stala sa Národnou futbalovou ligou. Odvtedy sa to nezmenilo.

Liga sa stále rozširovala a tímy ako Canton Bulldogs, Frankford Yellow Jackets a Providence Steam Roller všetky a#xA0won majstrovstvá. NFL si však nezískavala fanúšikov tak rýchlo, ako by chcela, a to nielen kvôli lokalizácii ligy na severovýchod a stredozápad.

30. až 40. roky: Prvé play-off a nové tímy

1932 zmenil NFL a spôsob udeľovania majstrovstiev. V tej dobe by bol majstrom tím s najvyšším percentom víťazstva, ale Chicago Bears a Portsmouth Spartans ukončili sezónu remízovo ako prví. Keďže neboli k dispozícii žiadne ďalšie tajbrejky, liga zvrátila dlhoročné pravidlo proti zápasom play-off a usporiadala prvý zápas majstrovstiev NFL. Medvede vyhrali 9: 0.

Ligou play -off vedúcou k úspešnému zakončeniu sezóny liga v roku 1933 prepracovala svoj systém a oddelila sa tak od svojho minulého, ako aj od univerzitného futbalu. Now the teams in the league were divided into divisions, the Eastern Division and Western Division (though the league was still so localized that the westernmost teams were in the Midwest). This now-familiar format was a success, and the division winners (New York Giants and Chicago Bears) met in the Championship Game, which the Bears won 23-21.

This new structure was a massive success, and with playoff runs to follow, fans caught on. Teams began to change as well. Some teams from the 20s and 30s fell off and disappeared from the NFL entirely, while others popped up in their wake - also on the East Coast and in the Midwest - and found themselves competing. The teams in NFL Championship Games in the 30s and 40s may look familiar. Not just the Bears and Giants, but the Green Bay Packers, Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins too.

A burgeoning sport, the NFL finally moved out west in 1946 when Cleveland Rams owner Dan Reeves threatened to leave football entirely if the league wouldn&apost let him relocate the team to Los Angeles. He relented, and by 1949 the Los Angeles Rams were in a Championship Game. The sport was expanding nationally.

1940s-50s: Integration in the NFL

Segregation in the NFL isn&apost discussed as much as segregation in baseball. But the mid-1930s into the 40s saw no black players in the league, a time of complete segregation in the NFL.

The first team to make strides toward ending segregation was the now-Los Angeles Rams, albeit by force: Plessy v. Ferguson meant the L.A. Coliseum couldn&apost lease their stadium to a team that was completely segregated. Thus, in 1946 they signed former UCLA star Kenny Washington in March, and Woody Strode in May.

Other NFL teams were slow to integrate their rosters. On the other hand, most of the teams in the All-America Football Conference had managed to integrate their teams in the late 40s. The AAFC later shut down and folded 3 teams into the NFL: the Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Colts and San Francisco 49ers.

Most teams had begun integrating slowly by the early 50s. The exception, to no one&aposs surprise, was the Washington Redskins. Washington owner George Marshall, a man literally known for being racist more than anything else, steadfastly refused to sign or draft black players. This extended all the way until 1962, when Stewart Udall - the secretary of the interior for most of the 1960s - threatened to revoke the team&aposs lease on the stadium, effectively evicting them. Marshall was forced to relent.

The 50s were a great time for the league. Integration, expansion and impressive championship runs from teams like the Lions and Browns helped increase popularity at a time when baseball fans were growing bored of the constant Yankees World Series victories. Football was becoming the popular new sport.

1960s: The AFL, the First Super Bowl and the Merger

The NFL also started facing competition from other leagues. In the 50s, after a failed attempt to buy an NFL team and bring them to Dallas, oil heir Lamar Hunt formulated plans to create a rival football league. The first official meeting between Hunt and other owners took place in August 1959, and by November the American Football League (AFL) had its first draft.

One owner left before the league could start as the NFL approved their team in Minnesota, but in 1960 the league had a television contract and 8 teams:

  • Boston Patriots
  • Buffalo účty
  • Dallas Texans
  • Denver Broncos
  • Houston Oilers
  • Los Angeles Chargers
  • New York Titans
  • Oakland Raiders

In the first few years, the AFL had middling success and didn&apost pose much of a threat to the NFL. But they did well enough to, in 1964, sign a new and better TV contract with NBC. This lucrative deal meant more money for the league, and suddenly teams had the funds to compete with the NFL for players. The most noteworthy of these players was Joe Namath, who was drafted by the Cardinals in the NFL and the New York Jets (formerly the titans) in the AFL and chose to sign with the Jets.

The AFL became more popular, and the leagues essentially found themselves in bidding wars, trying to outbid the other for draft picks and even trying to poach players from opposing leagues. Dallas Cowboys owner Tex Schramm approached Lamar Hunt about a potential merger.

A series of secret meetings hammered out the details of the merger, and in June of 1966, the AFL-NFL merger was officially announced. The combined leagues had 24 teams (including newly formed NFL expansion teams Atlanta Falcons and Miami Dolphins) and per the merger would expand to 26 teams by 1968 (which ended up being the New Orleans Saints and Cincinnati Bengals) and 28 teams by 1970 or "soon thereafter" (these teams ended up being the Seattle Seahawks and Tampa Bay Buccaneers).

Another part of the agreement was that while the AFL and NFL would play separate regular season schedules up to 1969, at the end of the season the league champions would play an "AFL-NFL World Championship Game." This was the first iteration of the Super Bowl. The NFL had the easy upper hand in the first two, as the Green Bay Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs and the Oakland Raiders, respectively.

In Super Bowl III, however, the AFL established itself as a league that could compete with the best. Led by the aforementioned Joe Namath, the New York Jets pulled off a huge upset against the Baltimore Colts, who had been favored by a whopping 18 points.

1970s: Rise in Popularity and the First Super Bowl Era Dynasties

The merger had now allowed for the NFL and AFL to be combined into one NFL. The Colts, Browns and Steelers of the NFL agreed to, with the 10 existing AFL teams, become the American Football Conference (AFC), while the remaining NFL teams were the National Football Conference (NFC).

It&aposs the 1970s where the NFL began to take shape into what it is today. Seattle and Tampa Bay were added as teams. The Boston Patriots became the New England Patriots. And the Super Bowl became a much bigger deal, thanks to several teams becoming dominating powerhouses, terrorizing the league and making the Super Bowl on multiple occasions.

From 1970-79, the Dallas Cowboys went to five Super Bowls, winning two. The Pittsburgh Steelers went to and won three Super Bowls (and a fourth in January of 1980). The Minnesota Vikings went toਏour Super Bowls - though they lost all four.

The Miami Dolphins also went to three straight Super Bowls and won two of them in the 1970s. Not as many as the previously mentioned team, but the Dolphins also did something none of those teams accomplished: the perfect season. A 14-0 regular season in 1972, two playoff wins to clinch the AFC and a Super Bowl win over Washington meant they were 17-0 with a championship. Only one team since has had an undefeated regular season they&aposre still the only undefeated championship team.

1980s-90s: USFL Competition, Free Agency and the Franchise Tag

The NFL was now an institution, and by the 80s the Super Bowl was regularly getting over 80 million television viewers. As such, it was time for some more millionaires to try and compete with it.

The United States Football League (USFL) lasted for three seasons, and perhaps could have lasted longer if not for its hubris. Beginning in 1983, the USFL played their games in the spring instead of the fall, and rosters boasted players such as future NFLers and Hall of Fame quarterbacks Jim Kelly and Steve Young.

But the owners, led by New Jersey Generals owner Donald Trump, made the decision to move their games to the fall in an attempt to directly compete with the NFL. A big part of this was filing an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL that alleged that the NFL had established a monopoly that pressured major television networks into not broadcasting fall USFL games.

The jury, after deliberation, found that the NFL did have a monopoly, but did not find it to be at fault for the USFL&aposs problem. As such, the USFL technically won its case but was awarded just one dollar of the $1.7 billion it sought. The league folded soon after.

The NFL, meanwhile, continued to thrive. The dynasties of the 70s were replaced by that of the San Francisco 49ers. The Chicago Bears and New York Giants, two of the oldest NFL franchises, used legendary defenses to get their first Super Bowl championships.

Another team of the 80s and 90s that thrived was the Denver Broncos, thanks to their star quarterback John Elway. Elway&aposs Broncos went to five Super Bowls, winning the last two. He was also an important part of what we know as modern free agency in football.򠫌ording to Sports Illustrated, when negotiations were going on to establish what free agency would look like, Broncos owner Pat Bowlen&aposs fear of losing his quarterback led to what is now known as the "franchise tag," where a team was permitted to choose one player per free agency season that they could "tag" and give a hefty one-year contract to - with the hopes of a long-term deal beyond that year getting finalized.

2000s: The Patriots Dynasty and the Goodell Era

The 2000s saw a dynasty that still exists in the NFL nearly two decades after their first Super Bowl victory - the New England Patriots.

The Patriots had been to just two Super Bowls prior to the 21st century, losing to the Bears in the 80s and the Packers in the 90s. Bill Belichick&aposs Patriots weren&apost expected to dominate at all, but an injury to starting QB Drew Bledsoe in 2001 led to second-year quarterback Tom Brady taking over. A solid year for the young Brady and a good defense led them to a massive upset over the St. Louis Rams in the Super Bowl that season Brady was named MVP of that Super Bowl.

Two years later, they won again. The year after that, they won again. Suddenly the Patriots were an undeniable dynasty, with three Super Bowl championships in four years. With Brady at the helm, Belichick created elite teams and developed a reputation as an all-time great coach. This culminated in the first ever undefeated 16-game season, which the Patriots achieved in 2007 thanks to a record-breaking year from Brady. But an upset by the New York Giants in Super Bowl 42 left them without a title to show for their effort.

Since 2001, the Patriots have been in਎ight Super Bowls, winning five.

The other big change for the NFL in the 2000s was at the commissioner&aposs office. In the middle of the decade, Commissioner Paul Tagliabue announced his retirement. In August of 2006, the NFL owners voted to make Roger Goodell, a longtime NFL employee, the new commissioner.

Goodell inherited a cultural and media juggernaut. In Tagliabue&aposs tenure, the NFL grew exponentially, and the one attempt at a new football league during that time, the XFL, was roundly mocked and lasted just one season. He was now commissioner of arguably the biggest professional sports league in America.

Súčasnosť

Since Goodell took over, the NFL has continued to thrive, albeit with declining ratings in line with the decline of all television ratings. But his NFL has also been riddled with controversies and public relations nightmares. A few of those include:

  • The 2011 NFL lockout, the first labor dispute the league had since 1987. The lockout lasted 18 weeks.
  • The 2012 referee lockout, where a labor dispute led to the NFL starting the season with replacement referees. Blown calls throughout the first 3 weeks of the season embarrassed the league and energized contract negotiations that led to increased wages and a 401(k).
  • "Deflategate," a scandal about whether Tom Brady was aware of Patriots employees deflating footballs. The NFL suspended Brady forਏour games, a decision that got reversed by the U.S. District Court - and then reinstated by the U.S. Court of Appeals.
  • Punishments for domestic abuse allegations by NFL players that many deemed insufficient, stemming from a two-game suspension to Ravens running back Ray Rice after being charged with assault. When a graphic video of the assault surfaced, Rice was cut by the Ravens and indefinitely suspended by Goodell.
  • Goodell&apossਊnd the NFL owners&apos inability to address players kneeling during the National Anthem to protest police brutality in a way that did not make things more controversial, particularly when they voted on a policy requiring players to either stand for the anthem or star in the locker room without consulting the NFLPA. Not long after, the NFL announced that there would not be a new rule regarding the anthem.

Despite these controversies, the NFL remains a powerhouse in American sports.


The Birth of the National Football League - HISTORY

In the world today there is a lot of different kinds of sports. Most popular to us Americans is probably baseball, basketball, and football. The one thatpeople enjoy watching is probably football. People of all ages like to watch this game, mostly because of the incessant body contact. One will get excited when there is an unbelievable play or a spectacular hit. Football like Classic Rock got popular right when it started. It is an exciting game when it started and will remain exciting in the future. .

The game of football came from soccer. A man name Walter Camp from.

Yale University saw his college team playing soccer and the rest is history. In themid 1800s the first resembling present day football game was played. It was on November 6, 1869. McGill University from Montreal, Canada played against.

Harvardská univerzita. Football was only play in the eastern United States untill itgot popular in 1880. It then spread all over the U.S.A. That"s why now there isthe National Football League.

In order to score points a team must advance the ball down the field. Thereare two main ways for a team to do that. Either by throwing or running the ball. A quarterback can throw the ball to a receiver that is down field. The quarterback is not the only passer. Anybody on the team can become the passer. A play that tells this is call the flick flicker. It is when the quarterback pitch the ball back to the runningback. He then feigns to throw, and draws all the defense to him. That makes a receiver open to throw to. Most of the running is done by the runningback. Running is not as effective as throwing, but if there is a opening he can run all the way. Running like throwing can be done by anyone.

In football there is three ways of scoring. A touchdown, field goal, and a safety. A touchdown is mostly scored by the offense. To score, a team needs to run or catch a pass over the opposing team"s goal line.


Národná futbalová liga

The National Football League can trace its history back to the late nineteenth century when Yale All-American guard William Heffelfinger was paid $500 to play against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. This makes Heffelfinger the first paid professional football player in the United States. Football remained mostly out of the national eye prior to the 1920s during the 1910s, American football was a regional sport with no formal league authority. One of the more prominent divisions was the Ohio League, which attracted acclaimed athletes including Jim Thorpe. As football became a more popular sport, attempts to form a national league began. When World War I began, the sport was sidelined. With many players entering into the armed forces, organizations either had to cut down on players or abandon the team altogether. Some teams decided to start drafting the remaining players who stayed stateside. This national recruiting of displaced players started the development of a national league. There were two main areas where larger, multi-state teams were focused: the Eastern Seaboard and the Midwestern region. Private businesses and individual communities began to sponsor these teams, seeing potential for a profitable market. As football rose in popularity, local teams became a source of pride for the businesses and towns.

The first major attempt to unify the various professional football teams occurred in 1920, with the formation of the American Professional Football Association. The league was founded in Canton, Ohio, where five of the teams originated. Founders organized the calendar into an eleven-game schedule with a champion declared at the end of each season, and also struck an agreement on player poaching. The league’s roster included: the Canton Bulldogs, the Cleveland Tigers, the Dayton Triangles, the Akron Professionals, the Rochester (NY) Jeffersons, the Rock Island Independents, the Muncie Flyers, the Decatur Staleys, the Chicago Cardinals, the Buffalo All-Americans, the Chicago Tigers, the Columbus Panhandles, the Detroit Heralds, and the Hammond Pros. The American Professional Football Association’s first president was Jim Thorpe, who played and coached for the Canton Bulldogs during the 1910s. Under Thorpe's leadership, the Bulldogs were the unofficial world champions in 1916, 1917, and 1919. His contributions to the game led him to become the highest-paid player in the league during its early years. Thorpe retired as a player from professional football in 1928 while he played for the Chicago Cardinals.

In 1922, the American Professional Football Association officially changed its name to the National Football League. In the league’s early decades, there was an inconsistent turnover of teams. Numerous communities attempted team sponsorship, but quickly realized that they could not cover the expenses required of a sponsor. Additionally, teams frequently moved, lured away by other communities that offered more lucrative financial deals. During this era in football history, Ohio became home to many different teams including:

· Canton Bulldogs (1920-1923, 1926)

· Cleveland Tigers (1920-1921)

· Akron Professionals (1920-1926)

· Dayton Triangles (1920-1929)

· Columbus Panhandles (1920-1922)

· Cincinnati Celts (1921-1921)

· Marion Oorang Indians (1922-1923)

· Columbus Tigers (1923-1924) (1926-1926)

· Cleveland Indians (1923-1923) (1931-1931)

· Cleveland Bulldogs (1924-1925) (1927-1927)

· Portsmouth Spartans (1930-1934)

· Cleveland Browns (1949-1996) (1999-present)

· Cincinnati Bengals (1968-present)

Because of Ohio's prominent role in professional football, the National Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton, Ohio, where the league began in 1920.


National Football League (Dixie Forever)

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Western Football Conference (WFC). The NFL is one of the five major professional sports leagues in North America and the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL's 18-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 18 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference (four division winners and two wild card teams) advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Union Bowl (called Yankee Bowl in the Confederate States), which is usually held in the last Sunday in January, and then the winner of the Dixie Bowl and the Yankee Bowl compete on the first Sunday in February which is played between the champions of the UFC and CFC.

The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the Western Football League (WFL) in 1966, and the first Union Bowl was held at the end of that season the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top Five tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner, who has broad authority in governing the league.

The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with 13 (nine NFL titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowl championships afterwards) the team with the most Super Bowl championships is the Pittsburgh Steelers with six. The current NFL champions are the Philadelphia Eagles, who defeated the New England Patriots in Super Bowl LII, their first Super Bowl championship after winning three NFL titles before the Super Bowl era.


The History of the American and National League, Part I

Baseball’s history is rich and complex, full of colorful characters, timeless moments and tremendous achievements. It is the story of racism and redemption, doctored balls and labor strikes, players and owners, victory and defeat. Just like the sport itself, baseball’s history has been both unpredictable and bound by cause-and-effect.

In order to appreciate where the sport of baseball is in the year 2008, we need to understand appreciate the past. In the coming weeks, I will provide a cursory overview of various aspects of baseball’s history, starting today with Expansion, Part I.

At the end of this series, I will provide some suggestions for books to read if you are interested. These posts will barely scratch the surface of what happened and why, and it behooves anyone truly interested in America’s national past time to dig into more depth.

NOTE: Part II can be found here.

The Origin of the National and American Leagues

Success breeds imitation. And throughout its history, baseball was awfully successful.

The National League was formed in 1876. Because this was successful, the American Association was created in 1881 to compete with the NL. In order to attract fans, the AA instituted several policies that the NL lacked: they played games on Sundays and they sold beer at the ballpark. They also undercut the NL, charging 25 cents for admission, rather than 50 cents. The AA also began to compete for players with the NL.

In 1884, the Union Association was formed, but only lasted one year. Then, in 1890, the Players League began, but also only lasted one year. However, the existence of the Players League had a residual effect on the longer-standing leagues: namely, the Players League contributed to the demise of the American Association in 1891. The AA had been consistently weaker than the NL during its ten-year existence, causing some of the stronger AA teams to make the jump over to the NL. The PL stole additional players from the AA and undercut its ticket prices, causing it to finally fold.

As the AA got weaker, the NL expanded. During the last three years of the AA’s existence, eight AA teams jumped to the NL. Four of those teams remain to this day: the Cardinals, Dodgers, Pirates and Reds. After the AA folded, the National League became a 12-team monopoly that lasted into the early 1900s.

By 1900, the 12-team circuit wasn’t working. Attendance was highly concentrated in only seven cities, and there were too many consistently bad teams, lessening excitement (and attendance) towards the end of the season. The owners got together and decided to reduce the league to eight teams. Thus, teams in Baltimore, Cleveland, Louisville and Washington were eliminated, leaving the following teams:

Boston Beaneaters, Brooklyn Superbas, Chicago Orphans, Cincinnati Reds, New York Giants, Philadelphia Phillies, Pittsburgh Pirates, and St Louis Perfectos.

When the NL reduced its teams, a minor league called the Western League saw an opportunity. In 1899, Bancroft Johnson, commissioner of the Western League, renamed his league the American League. In 1901 – the year after the NL contracted four teams – the American League removed itself from the National Agreement (the understanding between the National League and the various minor league circuits) and declared itself to be a Major League, alongside the National League. They also expanded, placing teams into three of the four cities that had lost their NL team – Baltimore, Cleveland, and Washington – as well as placing some teams into cities that already had an NL team – Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia. The original American League consisted of the following teams:

Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.

The National League was furious. They tried to push aside the upstart AL and regain their profitable monopoly. However, it soon became apparent that the AL wasn’t going anywhere, and, in true American fashion, the NL realized that if they couldn’t beat the AL, they should join them. In 1903 the two leagues signed a new version of the National Agreement, under which they agreed that they would each be a major league, and their champions would play each other in the World Series (a fantastic marketing and profit opportunity for the two leagues).

Thus, starting in 1903, the United States featured two eight-team baseball leagues: the American and National Leagues, whose winners would play each other in the World Series. And that remained intact for 50 years.

Bill Veeck would change all of that.

In 1951, Veeck purchased the St Louis Browns (originally the Milwaukee Brewers, they moved to St Louis and were re-named the Browns in 1902). Veeck, the former owner of the Cleveland Indians, was known for his various stunts. Perhaps his best-known stunt involved signing Eddie Gaedel, who was three-feet, seven inches tall. Gaedel had one at bat in his career, during which he donned a uniform with the number “1/8” and wore elf-life slippers with the ends turned up. Gaedel walked on four straight pitches, and was promptly replaced by a pinch runner. Infuriated at the affront to the sanctity of the game, American League president Will Harridge immediately voided Gaedel’s contract, leaving him with a perfect 1.000 career on-base percentage (as a direct result of this incident, the commissioner of baseball must now approve all player contracts). Needless to say, Veeck was not held in high esteem by the other owners.

When he purchased the Browns, Veeck believed that the city of St. Louis was too small for two teams, and he hoped to push out the struggling Cardinals. However, the Cardinals were soon bought by August Busch Jr., the president of Anheuser-Busch, who announced that he had no intentions of moving the Cardinals. Therefore, Veeck decided that he wanted to move the Browns.

Veeck first tried to move back to the Browns’ original city, Milwaukee, but he was blocked by the other owners. He then tried to move to Baltimore, but was again blocked by the owners. Lacking leverage, he was forced to sell the team to a Baltimore-based group. With Veeck out of the picture, the other owners approved the Browns’ move to Baltimore (foreshadowing a contentious move of a football Browns team to Baltimore decades later) in 1954. The period of stability in the AL and NL was over.

In 1950, real-estate businessman Walter O’Malley acquired a majority stake in the Brooklyn Dodgers. Before long, he began to look for an improvement over the Dodgers home, Ebbets Field, which was built in 1913 and had become old and dilapidated by the 1950s. New York City Construction Coordinator Robert Moses wanted O’Malley to use a site in Flushing Meadows, Queens, for his new ballpark. Moses envisioned a city-built, city-owned park, but O’Malley wanted nothing of the sort. When it became clear that O’Malley was not going to find any suitable land in Brooklyn, he began looking elsewhere.

World War II had been over for less than a decade when O’Malley purchased the Dodgers. The war had been the first to involve an air force, as technology had become sophisticated enough to build a fleet of fighter jets. It wasn’t long until the technology allowed commercial flights as well. Sure enough, in 1952, the first commercial jet – the de Havilland Comet – was introduced. The Boeing 707 was introduced not long after, and was the first widely successful commercial jet, signaling the beginning of air travel in the United States.

Thus, it is not a coincidence that talk of expanding baseball westward began to pick up steam after the war. Officials in Los Angeles had been actively lobbying for a major league team, and with the advent of the jet, transcontinental travel was cheaper and faster than ever before. When it became known that O’Malley was looking for land outside of Brooklyn, Los Angeles quickly offered him a plot on which to build a park.

However, it would be impractical to move only one team across the country. If Major League baseball was truly going to expand out west, they would need at least two teams. At the same time that O’Malley was offered land in Los Angeles, New York Giants owner Horace Stoneham was looking for a replacement for his stadium, the Polo Grounds (which had opened in 1890 and was extensively renovated in 1911 after a fire). Stoneham also began to consider options outside of New York – the Giants had a minor league team in Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Stoneham considered moving his Giants to Minnesota. However, O’Malley then approached Stoneham with an idea: why not move west?

The mayor of San Francisco was excited about the opportunity to have a major league team, and provided Stoneham with the necessary land for a ballpark. It was settled: O’Malley and Stoneham would move their teams to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively. The Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants met on opening day of 1958 in Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, signaling the beginning of a new and busy era of expansion and movement in baseball.

The Continental League

New York State Attorney William Shea was not happy about losing two of his state’s three teams to California. Shea tried to get another Major League team in New York, either via expansion or by moving an existing team. However, his efforts were to no avail. Then, in November of 1958, he had an idea: create a third Major League, the Continental League. He named Branch Rickey president (to give the league some credibility), and the Continental League was formally announced in 1959. Teams were going to be created in Denver, Houston, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Toronto, and, of course, New York City. Three additional teams were expected, thus making it an eight-team league, a la the AL and NL.

As you might imagine, Major League baseball was not happy with this idea. They had enjoyed a very prosperous monopoly for over 50 years besides, history had shown that three major leagues didn’t work. Major League baseball came up with a compromise: it announced that for the first time since the American League had joined the National League back in 1903, it would expand. Both the AL and NL decided to add two new teams to their ranks, with priority given to cities that did not already have a team. However, the National League also extended an invitation to the owners of New York’s Continental League team to join the National League instead. When they accepted, Shea finally got his wish, and it more or less officially killed the Continental League.

The American League expanded in 1961, adding the Washington Senators (the previous Senators team had moved to Minnesota and were re-named the Minnesota Twins in 1961) and Anaheim Angels, giving baseball more of a presence out west.

The National League expanded in 1962, adding the Houston Colt .45s along with the New York Mets (incidentally, the Mets paid homage to their New York predecessors with an orange “NY” from the Giants logo on a Dodger-blue cap) .
There were also several teams that moved in the 1950s, besides the St. Louis Browns. In 1953, the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee and in 1955, the Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City. As the country expanded west and small cities grew larger, so did major league baseball expand and grow as well.

At the beginning of the 1962 season, Major League baseball looked like this:


The Birth of the National Football League - HISTORY

Národná futbalová liga

General Comments

The images for historical NFL helmets illustrated on the various pages for each division are based heavily on information derived from one particular web site, 'Mike Stanhope's NFL Helmet page' (site appears to no longer exist as of 2020) and were mostly done in the period 1999- 2000. The dates of use for each helmet and the accompanying comments are also derived primarily from this source, which appears to have been very carefully researched and which I believe to be highly accurate, though I have made a number of additions through the years and have found a small number of apparent errors. Helmets for teams that have changed names or have been relocated are placed in the section for the franchise's current name (i.e, the Houston Oilers helmets are placed in the Tennessee Titans section on the AFC South page), with the exception of the Cleveland Browns.

Please click on the links below to see the page for each NFL division.

NFL History

The links below will open new browser windows presenting lists of NFL Super Bowl, Conference, and Divisional champions in "Helmet Project" format. The Super Bowl and Conference champions are listed since the first Super Bowl game the Divisional champions are listed back to 1970, the first year of the NFL's six-division format and of the AFL-NFL merger. The years listed refer to the football season in question, rather than the dates when the championship game was played (for example, "2017" is listed for the Philadelphia Eagles' recent Super Bowl victory (played in 2018), which occurred at the end of the 2017 football season).

After careful consideration, I elected to display the current helmet for each team on these pages, rather than the one used by the team during the year listed, to more clearly illustrate the ebb and flow of power among the teams through the years. The use of multiple helmets for each team in such a display would interfere with the eye's ability to grasp the underlying patterns, such as the prolonged dominance of a small number of teams in the 1970s, and the emergence of great parity since about 1990. Besides, you can always see what helmet design team X wore in year XXXX on the divisional pages at the links further up on this page.

The Pro Bowl

At the end of each NFL season since 1939, the league has held an exhibition game featuring the players deemed to have excelled during the previous season. Prior to the 1970 football season, the Pro Bowl was a game between teams representing the league's Eastern and Western Conferences from 1970 to 2012, and from 2016 to present the two teams have represented the American Conference and the National Conference. From 2013 through 2015, the Pro Bowl was contested by two teams drafted by Hall of Fame NFL players, without regard to conference or NFL team (for example, the 2013 game was "Team [Jerry] Rice" vs "Team [Deion] Sanders").

Apparently from the game played January 29, 1979 to present (including the "non-conferenced" teams of the 2013 - 2015 years), the players selected for the Pro Bowl game have worn the helmets of their respective NFL teams during the game, but prior to 1979, a single helmet design was used by all players on each team. Six pairs of helmet designs used during the period 1960 through 1978 have been identified (those shown below). Some of the discrepancies related to the dates of use of these designs may be due to the fact that the Pro Bowl game played in January of Year X is often referred to as the "(Year X-1) Pro Bowl".

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