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Bitka pri Gettysburgu, 2. júla, 15.30 hod


Druhý deň bitky pri Gettysburgu, 2. júla, 15.30 hod.

Mapa zobrazujúca druhý deň bitky pri Gettysburgu, 2. júla, 15.30 hod.

Mapa prevzatá z Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: III: Retreat from Gettysburg, s.299

Gettysburg: Posledná invázia, Allen C. Guelzo. Vynikajúci popis kampane v Gettysburgu, ilustrovaný nádherným výberom očitých svedkov. Zameriava sa na akcie jednotlivých veliteľov, od Meadeho a Leeho až po veliteľov plukov, so zameraním na veliteľov zborov a ich činnosti a postoje. Podporené množstvom účtov z nižšie položeného veliteľského reťazca a od civilistov zachytených v bojoch. [prečítať celú recenziu]

Hviezdy v ich kurzoch: Kampaň v Gettysburgu, Shelby Foote, 304 strán. Táto práca, dobre preskúmaná a napísaná jedným z najznámejších historikov občianskej vojny, je prevzatá z jeho dlhšej trojdielnej práce o vojne, ale netrpí tým.

Návrat na: Bitka o Gettysburg - zbierka máp Gettysburgu



Bitka pri Gettysburgu

Bezprostredne po svojom víťazstve v Chancellorsville pripravil generál Lee armádu Severnej Virgínie na kampane, ktoré prídu čoskoro. Reorganizoval jej pechotu do troch zborov po troch divíziách a umiestnil ich pod velenie generálporučíka Jamesa Longstreeta, Richarda S. Ewella a A. Powella Hilla. (Konfederačný zbor čítal asi 20 000 pešiakov, 2 000 delostrelcov v divízii 6 000 pechotných mužov a 1 500 brigád.) Jeho jazdecká divízia zostala pod velením genmjr. Generála Jamesa E. B. Stuarta a každému pridelil podporné delostrelecké prápory. Armáda Severnej Virgínie mala asi 75 000 dôstojníkov a mužov, z ktorých takmer 10 000 tvorili jazdci.

Po jeho porážke v Chancellorsville sa Potomakova armáda generála Hookera vrátila do svojich pozícií blízko Fredericksburgu a pripravila sa na nový ťah smerom k Richmondu. Lee si však zachoval iniciatívu získanú v Chancellorsville a 6. júna zahájil vlastnú ambicióznu kampaň. Pretože nevidel nič, čo by sa dalo získať ďalšou bitkou v oblasti Fredericksburgu, rozhodol sa pre odvážny krok, ktorý by preniesol dejisko nepriateľstva na sever od rieky Potomac. Ak by sa to dalo vykonať, mohlo by to narušiť federálne plány kampane na sezónu, odstrániť federálne sily z údolia Shenandoah a dať mu šancu vyhrať rozhodujúce víťazstvo Konfederácie.

„CAVALRY CHARGE“, ILUSTRÁCIA EDWIN FORBES (BL)

Keď Lee opustil zbor, aby strážil priechody rieky Rappahannock vo Fredericksburgu, presunul Ewellov a Longstreetov zbor na západ a na sever do oblasti Culpeper, kde sa zhromaždila veľká časť Stuartovej kavalérie na pochod na sever. Tam, 9. júna, v poslušnosti Hookerovmu rozkazu „rozptýliť a zničiť“ konfederačné sily v tejto oblasti, jazdecký korpus Armády Potomac prekvapil a takmer porazil konfederačných jazdcov v bitke o Brandy Station, najväčšej jazdeckej bitke. vojny. Bitka bola remíza, ktorú Federals odviezli z poľa, a nechal Stuarta, aby ošetril svoju zranenú pýchu. Generálmajor Alfred Pleasonton, veliteľ jazdectva Únie, však potvrdil, že v oblasti Culpeper sú spoločníci v platnosti, a jazdci Únie sa dozvedeli, že môžu „spochybniť dovtedajšiu nadradenosť a pripustiť ju Konfederácii. kavaléria “.

HLAVNÝ OBECNÝ JOSEF HOOKER, VELITEL, ARMÁDA POTOMACU. UDELENÉ 28. júna 1863 (GNMP)

10. júna Ewellov zbor odišiel z Culpepera do údolia Shenandoah. O štyri dni neskôr zajala posádku Únie vo Winchestri a veľké množstvo zásob tam a v Martinsburgu. Ewellov zbor dosiahol Potomac pri Hagerstowne 15. júna. Keď sa Ewell blížil k Potomacu, Longstreetov zbor sa presunul severovýchodne od Modrého hrebeňa do horských medzier západne od Washingtonu. Tam to a Stuartovi jazdci strážili konfederáciu vpravo a vzadu, keď sa zvyšok Leeovej armády presúval na sever. V polovici júna pochodoval Hillov zbor z Fredericksburgu smerom k Front Royal a do údolia Shenandoah. Leeov plán odstrániť operačné stredisko z Virgínie bol v plnom prúde.

Generál Hooker vedel, že Leeova armáda sa pohybuje na sever, ale nedokázal predpovedať Leeove zámery ani ciele. Keď bolo zrejmé, že vo Fredericksburgu zostal iba Hillov zbor, Hooker navrhol, aby mu bolo umožnené zasiahnuť a postúpiť smerom k Richmondu. Napriek tomu, že tento návrh mal v tom čase určité zásluhy, Lincoln to odmietol a poznamenal, že Leeova armáda je jeho „istým objektívnym bodom“. Preto Hooker presunul potomkovskú armádu do oblasti západne od Washingtonu a južne od Potomacu, odkiaľ mohla čeliť Leeovej hlavnej sile a pokrývať Washington. Snaha Hookera dozvedieť sa o polohách Leeovej armády západne od Washingtonu odoslaním kavalérie a pechotných sond cez horské medzery tam vyústila do živých bojov so Stuartovými mužmi v Aldie, Middleburgu a Upperville, ale poskytli málo informácií a vážne nenarušili Leeho pohyby.

Ewellov zbor a brigáda brigádneho generála Alberta G. Jenkinsa prekročili Potomac 15. júna a v obrovskom nálete zamierili na sever hore Cumberlandským údolím do Hagerstownu a Chambersburgu a zametali krajinu pre zásoby. V Chambersburgu rozdelil jednonohý Ewell svoje sily a poslal divíziu generálmajora Jubala A. Earlyho na východ do Gettysburgu v Yorku a za rieku Susquehanna. Ewell medzitým pokračoval na sever do Carlisle a smerom na Harrisburg s oddielmi majora Gensa. Robert E. Rodes a Edward Johnson. 29. júna sa Earlyho jednotky dostali k rieke Susquehanna vo Wrightsville a Rodesova divízia ohrozovala Harrisburg. Do tejto doby zbor Hill a Longstreet prekročil Potomac 24. a 25. júna a 27. júna dosiahol oblasť Chambersburg. Obsadili Chambersburg a Cashtown Pass cez South Mountain na východe.

25. júna, keď sa Hooker dozvedel, že Leeove sily prekročili Potomac, nariadil Potomackú armádu z Virginie do tej časti Marylandu medzi Frederickom a riekou. Medzitým ostatné federálne velenia v ohrozenej oblasti opásali hrozbu konfederácie a guvernér Pennsylvánie Andrew Curtin pracoval na organizácii pennsylvánskych milícií na obranu Harrisburgu a ďalších dôležitých bodov v štáte Keystone.


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LEE INVADES PENNSYLVANIA, 3. JÚNA 30-30. JÚNA 1863
3. júna 1863 sa armáda Severnej Virgínie začína presúvať na západ, aby prekročila pohorie Blue Ridge a získala údolie Shenandoah. Kým generál Hooker rozpozná Leeov účel, armáda Konfederácie vstúpila do údolia a pohybuje sa na sever, aby prekročila Potomac a vtrhla do Marylandu a Pensylvánie. Potomská armáda Únie sa stiahla z línie rieky Rappahannock a začala pochodovať na sever, aby zachytila ​​Leeovu armádu.

Po prekročení Potomacu Lee stratil kontakt so Stuartom a veľkou časťou konfederačnej kavalérie. Prikázal tomuto generálovi, aby strážil horské priesmyky s časťou svojich jazdcov, pokiaľ bol nepriateľ južne od Potomacu, a so zvyškom prešiel túto rieku, aby preveril Ewellovo právo. Stuart videl, že jeho vojaci strážia priechody, ale pokúsil sa dosiahnuť Ewellovu pravicu nie priamou cestou v blízkosti hôr, ale tým, že viedol svoje tri najlepšie brigády medzi armádou Únie a Washingtonom. Stuart dúfal, že takýto krok spôsobí chaos medzi nepriateľmi a odstráni škvrnu Brandy Station z jeho povesti. Jeho hazard však zlyhal, sily Únie sa pohli a zabránili mu dosiahnuť Ewellovo právo. Tri blúdiace brigády teda prekročili Potomac pri Rowserovom Fordovi a išli na sever cez Rockville, Westminster a Hannover do Carlisle, úplne mimo kontaktu s generálom Lee a hlavnou armádou a neposkytli spravodajské informácie a preverovanie dôležité pre jeho úspech. Stuartovo zlyhanie pokryť právo Leeovej armády a neposkytnúť mu informácie o nepriateľovi bolo jednou z veľkých chýb Konfederácie v kampani v Gettysburgu.

HLAVNÉ VŠEOBECNÉ ZÁPASY. E. B. STUART, VELITEL, JAVOROVÝ ROZDEL, ARMÁDA SEVERNEJ PANNE. (GNMP)

HLAVNÝ OBECNÝ GEORGE G. MEADE (SEDENÉ, CENTRUM), VELITEL, ARMÁDA POTOMACU a zosilňovač ZAMESTNANCI. (LC)

Začiatkom 28. júna, keď sa potomkovská armáda sústredila pri Fredericku v Marylande, prišiel posol z vojnového oddelenia s rozkazom, aby bol generál Hooker zbavený velenia nad touto armádou a nahradil ho generálmajor George G. Meade, veliteľ. piateho zboru Únie. Hooker unáhlene ponúkol svoju rezignáciu 27. a prezident Lincoln to prijal s nadšením. Meade bol jeho vymenovaním poriadne prekvapený a zdráhal sa ho prijať. Málokto, ak vôbec nejaký Američan, mal v takej kritickej chvíli na seba toľko zodpovednosti. Napriek tomu Meade, dokonale schopný profesionálny vojak, ktorý mal silný zmysel pre povinnosť, niesol bremeno a prijal okamžité opatrenia, aby presunul svoju armádu na sever na široký front k reliéfu Harrisburgu a zároveň pokryl Washington a Baltimore.

Večer 28. júna sa generál Lee, ktorý bol v Chambersburgu, dozvedel od špióna, že Potomcova armáda, teraz pod generálom Meade, prekročila Potomac a nachádza sa v oblasti Frederick. Okamžite sa rozhodol sústrediť svoju armádu na východ od hôr, aby tam udržala armádu Únie, a poslal k generálovi Ewellovi do Carlisle jazdcov s rozkazom ihneď vrátiť jeho zbor do oblasti Gettysburg-Cashtown. Ewell, ktorý sa chystal pokúsiť sa zajať Harrisburg, túto operáciu odvolal a nariadil generálovi Earlyovi z Yorku v Pensylvánii, aby bezodkladne vrátil svoju divíziu do oblasti zhromaždenia. Ewell medzitým poslal Johnsonovu divíziu a jeho vagónový vlak späť do Chambersburgu a začal s Rodesovou divíziou na priamej trase smerom na Gettysburg.


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SITUÁCIA 30. JÚNA 1863, EVE BATTLE
Armáda Severnej Virgínie sa pokúša sústrediť v blízkosti Cashtownu, aby sa pripravila na bitku. Len štyri z deviatich divízií armády sú na východnej strane hôr. Potomakova armáda sa pohybuje od Fredericka na sever takmer tridsať míľovým frontom. Popoludní obsadila jazdecká divízia Bufordova únia Gettysburg a Reynoldsov 1. armádny zbor táborí päť kilometrov južne od mesta. Zostávajúca časť armády sa postupne pohybuje v smere na Gettysburg.

29. júna divízia Hill's Corps generála generála Henryho Hetha prešla cez South Mountain cez Cashtown Pass do osady Cashtown na východnom úpätí hory. 30. júna Heth vyslal brigádu na východ osem míľ do Gettysburgu, aby hľadala zásoby, najmä obuv, o ktorej počul, že sú v meste. Keď sa nachádzali v blízkosti Gettysburgu, spoločníci videli značnú silu jazdectva Únie a bez boja sa vrátili do Cashtownu. 1. júla generál Hill poslal Hethovu divíziu, za ktorou nasledovala divízia generálmajora Dorseyho Pendera, do Gettysburgu v platnosti.

HLAVNÁ VŠEOBECNÁ HENRY HETH (GNMP)

Vojaci, ktorí boli 30. júna neďaleko Gettysburgu, boli jazdci divízie armády Potomacu generála gen. Johna Buforda. Keď sa táto armáda presťahovala na sever z oblasti Frederick, Bufordovi vojaci preverili jej ľavú prednú časť a zhromaždili informácie o Leeovej armáde pre generála Meadeho a pre generálmajora Johna E. Reynoldsa, veliteľa prvého zboru Únie. Buford, vynikajúci jazdecký dôstojník, dorazil do Gettysburgu dvoma zo svojich troch brigád. Uverejnil ich v oblúku západne a severne od mesta pokrývajúceho cesty, cez ktoré by sa mohli konfederáti priblížiť.

Gettysburg v roku 1863 bolo mesto s asi 2 400 ľuďmi. Sedel uprostred mierne sa valiacej poľnohospodárskej pôdy a bukolickej prikrývky sadov, obilných polí, pasienkov a lesných porastov. Jeho krajina sa vlnila medzi nízkymi severo-južnými hrebeňmi, niekedy napojenými na osamelé žulové kopce, a Rock Creek ohraničoval mesto na východe. Gettysburg bol krajským sídlom okresu Adams a mohol sa pochváliť vysokou školou v Pensylvánii a luteránskym seminárom. Navyše to bol uzol cestnej siete s diaľnicami vedúcimi na západ do Chambersburgu, na východ do Yorku a juhovýchodne do Baltimoru. Osem ďalších ciest viedlo do Harrisburgu, Carlisle, Emmitsburgu, Taneytownu, Hagerstownu, Hannoveru a na menšie miesta v okolí. Na východ sa tiahla železnica do Hannover Junction a ďalej do Baltimoru. V blízkosti Chambersburg Pike západne od mesta bolo postavené železničné lôžko, ale nemalo žiadne stopy.

Potomacská armáda mala asi 95 000 dôstojníkov a príslušníkov, všetko dobrovoľníkov. Mala sedem zborov pechoty a delostrelectva, zbor kavalérie a delostrelectva a delostreleckú rezervu dvadsaťjeden batérií. Jeho zbor bol výrazne menší ako zbor Konfederácie a mal v priemere 14 000 dôstojníkov a vojakov, ale veľkosť sa pohybovala od 9 800 do 17 000. Divízií bolo dvadsaťdva, dva alebo tri na zbor, rozdelených na päťdesiatdeväť brigád. Pešie brigády boli veľkosťou porovnateľné s konfederačnými brigádami a mali priemernú silu asi 1 500 dôstojníkov a mužov. Divízie odborov však boli spravidla menšie ako divízie armády Severnej Virgínie.

PORUČENEC VŠEOBECNE AMBROSE P. HILL, veliteľ, 3. ARMÁDNE ZBORY, ARMÁDA SEVERNEJ VIRGINIE (GNMP)

Meadeova armáda pochodovala na sever od Fredericka na široký front, hľadala spoločníkov a pokrývala Baltimore a Washington. 30. júna bola ľavica Meadeho armády blízko Emmitsburgu v Marylande a jeho pravica asi 25 míľ na východ pri Manchestri. Keď Lee nariadil sústredenie v blízkosti Gettysburgu, Meade sa pripravil na vybudovanie obranného postavenia pozdĺž Pipe Creek južne od línie Mason-Dixon. Udalosti 1. júla mali zmeniť plány každého veliteľa.


Bitka pri Gettysburgu

Po Hethovom odrazení nastal v bojoch prestávka, keď na pole dorazili ďalšie sily, modré a sivé. Divízia generálmajora Dorseyho Pendera nasledovala Hethovu do poľa, a keď Hill pre popoludňajší útok vytvoril Hethovu divíziu na Herr Ridge, zarovnal za ňou Penderovu divíziu. Asi o 11:30 hod. Divízia Abner Doubleday pod dočasným velením brig. Prišiel generál Thomas Rowley. Generál Doubleday umiestnil svoju prvú brigádu, ktorej vtedy velil plukovník Chapman Biddle, naľavo od železnej brigády, aby pokryla veľkú priepasť medzi Herbstovým lesom a Fairfield Road. Brigádu plukovníka Roya Stonea zverejnil na hrebeni medzi lesom a šťukou. Doubleday umiestnil zostávajúcu divíziu zboru, brig. Gen. John C. Robinson, v zálohe v seminári. Jedenásty zbor Únie nasledoval prvý zbor do poľa cez cesty Taneytown a Emmitsburg. Generálmajor Oliver O. Howard, jeho veliteľ, ktorý rok predtým prišiel o ruku, išiel dopredu a skúmal oblasť Gettysburgu zo strechy budovy v centre mesta, keď sa dozvedel, že Reynolds bol zabitý a že bol veliteľom síl Únie na poli. Howard okamžite odoslal správy so žiadosťou o pomoc a prijal opatrenia na pokračovanie boja. Poslal doraziť prvú zo svojich divízií, generálmajora Carla Schurza, severne od mesta s úmyslom zaujať pozíciu na Oak Ridge napravo od prvého zboru. Poslal brig. Divízia generála Francisa C. Barlowa na podporu Schurza. Zaradil svoju zadnú divíziu, brig. Generál Adolph von Steinwehr a dve delostrelecké batérie na cintorínskom kopci držali kopec ako miesto zhromaždenia v prípade, že by jednotky Únie nemohli udržať svoje pozície za mestom, kým nepríde pomoc. Dúfal, že mu Dvanásty zbor Únie môže v krátkom čase pomôcť, ale vedel, že ostatné sily môžu prísť až neskoro cez deň.

HLAVNÁ VŠEOBECNÁ ABNEROVÁ DOUBLEDAY (USAMHI)

BRIGADIER VŠEOBECNÉ ROBERTOVÉ PRUTY (GNMP)

Medzitým sa k Gettysburgu zo severu priblížili dve divízie Ewellovho zboru, ktoré boli v Carlisle a Yorku. Rodesova divízia kráčala po Carlisle Road, ale nechala ju postúpiť dolu Oak Ridge, aby dorazila na pole vľavo od Hill's Corps. Earlyova divízia pochodovala k mestu cez Harrisburg Road. Howard a Doubleday sa o svojom prístupe dozvedeli od Bufordových jazdcov, ktorí strážili cesty severne od mesta.

Rodesova divízia a delostrelecký prápor podplukovníka Thomasa H. Cartera dosiahli Oak Hill skôr, ako ho mohli obsadiť Schurzovi muži. Keď sa Doubleday dozvedel o Rodesovom prístupe, poslal zo svojej rezervy Robinsonovu divíziu, aby sa stretol s Rodesom zo Seminary Ridge na Mummasburg Road. Schurzova divízia, ktorá nebola schopná zaujať pozíciu na výšinách, ktoré teraz obsadil Rodes, sa dostala do polohy obrátenej na sever na rovinu severne od mesta za pravicou Prvého zboru. Ewell, ktorý bol s Rodesom, interpretoval tieto pohyby ako útok a anulovanie príkazu generála Leeho, aby sa nezúčastnil generálneho zasnúbenia. Prikázal Rodesovi, aby zasiahol sily Únie na jeho fronte.

Lee počul kanónovú paľbu z rannej bitky, keď išiel na východ cez Cashtown Pass. Ponáhľal sa do poľa a včas dorazil k Hillovým radám, aby bol svedkom Ewellovho útoku. Napriek tomu, že si želal zhromaždiť svoju armádu predtým, ako sa zapojil do „obecného zasnúbenia“, táto bitka sa začala. Dal Hillovi povolenie pripojiť sa k útoku Ewellovi, pričom stále vedel, kde sa nachádza iba tá časť armády Potomacu, ktorú mohol vidieť vpredu.

HLAVNÝ VŠEOBECNÝ JUBAL SKORO (USAMHI)

Rodes vytvoril svoju divíziu v dvoch líniách brig. Brigáda generála Alfreda Iversona bola na kopci v blízkosti súčasného miesta Pamätníka mieru večného svetla. Brigáda plukovníka Edwarda A. O'Neala bola na svahu vľavo a Brig. Generál Georga Dolesa sa tiahol do roviny na východe. Brig. Gens. Brigády Juniusa Daniela a Stephena Dodsona Ramseura obsadili podpornú líniu. Rodes im prikázal zaútočiť. Iverson a O'Neal zle nasmerovali svoj postup. O'Nealovi muži ustúpili pred paľbou vpravo prvého zboru pozdĺž Mummasburgskej cesty a vojsk vľavo od jedenásteho zboru. Robinsonovi muži potom zamierili na západ k Iversonovým jednotkám, ktoré sa slepo pohybovali pod holým nebom v ichpredu. Konfederantov prekvapili salvami, zabili, zranili alebo zajali 800 severokarolínčanov a útok znemožnili. Jeden očitý svedok napísal: Iversonovu líniu naznačoval ghastleyov rad mŕtvych a zranených mužov, ktorých krv vliekla priebeh ich línie s karmínovou škvrnou. “Rodes však trval na tom a vyslal svoje podporné brigády proti Robinsonovej línii.

Asi o 14:30, keď Rodesova divízia zasiahla zo severu, Lee dal Hethovi povolenie obnoviť svoj útok zo západu podporovaný paľbou delostrelectva na Herr Ridge. Toto sa stalo jedným z najsmrteľnejších bojov vojny. Napriek tomu, že pozícia Únie na McPherson Ridge a v McPhersonovom lese bola v mnohých ohľadoch dobrá, dlhšia línia Konfederácie dokázala obísť ľavicu Únie, pretože spredu rýchlo narazila do pozície Únie spredu a kričala. ako démoni. " Železná brigáda vo svojej vyspelej pozícii v lese bola zraniteľná na ľavej strane a silno tlačila na prednú časť. Jeho muži si vymenili paľbu s brigádou brig. Generál James Johnston Pertigrew „dovtedy, kým čiary do seba nevlievali hrabošov vo vzdialenosti nie väčšej ako 20 krokov“. Železná brigáda ustúpila, zastavila sa a vytvorila v lese tri rady. Zastavila sa opäť na otvorených poliach a potom zaujala konečné miesto pred seminárom. Biddleova brigáda po jeho ľavici statne odolávala z otvoreného terénu na hrebeňovej línii, kým jej pluky neboli obkľúčené a zdecimované a už nedokázali udržať túto prednú líniu. Stoneovu brigádu Pennsylvánčanov, ktorá stála na západe a severe pozdĺž šťúk, napadli Hethovi muži zo západu aj Rodesove jednotky, ktoré zaútočili zo severu „so zborom úžasných výkrikov“.


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1. júla 1863, ODPOLEDNE
1. zbor Únie zaujal pozície na obranu západného prístupu k Gettysburgu, zatiaľ čo časť 11. zboru tvorí severne od mesta. Howard tvorí rezerváciu na Cemetery Hill. Konfederačné sily sa zbiehajú na Gettysburg od západu, severu a severovýchodu od 13:30 hod. do 15:30 hod. v krvavých bojoch zaútočia na obranu Únie a prinútia oba zbory Únie ustúpiť na cintorín a Culpove vrchy.
Oddanosť povinnosti, hrdosť, odvaha a disciplína držali týchto mužov na svojich miestach, keď mohli ľahko ujsť z poľa.

Útok viedla Hethova divízia, najmä Pettigrewova veľká brigáda, a vstrebala trest štedro uplatňovaný obrancami Únie. Obete 26. pluku v Severnej Karolíne hovoria o odhodlaní Konfederácie v tomto boji: pri jeho farbách bolo zastrelených štrnásť mužov a plukovník a viac ako polovica z 800-členného pluku padla. Na strane Únie 24. Michiganský pluk železnej brigády stratil 363 zo 496 vojakov zapojených do denného boja, 151. pensylvánska z Biddleovej brigády 337 z roku 467. Oddanosť, povinnosť, hrdosť, odvaha a disciplína držali týchto mužov vo svojich rukách. posty, keď mohli ľahko ujsť z poľa. V ten deň bolo také správanie normou.

Potom, čo Hethovi muži vyčistili McPhersonov hrebeň od jednotiek Únie, Penderova divízia to prešla a zatlačila útok proti federálnej sile, ktorá sa zhromažďovala s batériami za prsnými prácami pred budovami seminára. Brigáda plukovníka Abnera Perrina z Južných Karolín a brig. Severokarolínci generála Alfreda M. Scalesa zatlačili útok domov proti zvyšku prvého zboru a asi dvadsiatke jeho zbraní. Bola to krvavá záležitosť —Perrin napísal, že jeho vojská sa odvážne pohli vpred proti „najničivejšiemu ohňu mušketou, ktorému som kedy bol vystavený“. Scalesovi muži, bližšie k šťuke, dostali ohromný oheň kanistrom na ľavom boku a mušketou a kanistrom spredu, takže potom, čo vyhnali Federálov z hrebeňa, Scales zistil, že „iba skupina tu a tam označila miesto, kde pluky odpočívali. "

Rodesov chybný útok sa medzitým zastavil pred Robinsonovou divíziou pri ulici Mummasburg, ale bola to len chvíľková prestávka. Danielove a Ramseurove brigády obnovili útok z Oak Hillu a Dolesova brigáda pred Jedenástym zborom na planine severne od Gettysburgu dostala včasnú pomoc príchodom Earlyovej divízie po Harrisburg Road po jej ľavici. Ako Dolesova línia postupovala po osi Carlisle Road proti Schurzovej malej divízii. Barlowova divízia sa sformovala severne od mesta neďaleko Harrisburg Road a hrozila úderom Doleovi do boku. Earlyov príchod obrátil stoly. Early zarovnal tri svoje brigády k Rodesovmu ľavému a oproti Barlowovmu prednému a boku. Jeho útok spojený s Rodesovým postrkom zničil zle vyslaný Jedenásty zbor. Earlyovi muži rozbili zbor napravo pri Harrisburg Road a pritlačili ho späť k mestu, nedovolili mu reformu. Rodes súčasne zasiahol Prvý zbor hneď pri Mummasburgskej ceste a Penderova divízia zaútočila na líniu Prvého zboru v seminári. Generál Robinson nariadil 16. pluku Maine, aby kryl ústup prvého zboru z polohy na Mummasburgskej ceste tým, že si tam svoju pozíciu „za každú cenu“ udržal. Trvalo to dosť dlho, ale náklady boli vysoké a#151232 z jeho 298 mužov sa stalo obeťami. V obave, že ich farby budú zachytené, roztrhali Maine muži vlajku na úlomky, ktoré sa každý pokúsil uniesť.

Po rannej bitke 1. júla sa Železná brigáda Únie stiahla do úkrytu a krytu lesného domu farmára Johna Herbsta. Popoludní na nich zaútočila brigáda generála Jamesa J. Pettigrewa v Severnej Karolíne. Pluk poručíka Williama B. Taylora, 11. Severná Karolína, bol priamo konfrontovaný s 24. Michiganom, u ktorého slúžil súkromník Roswell I. Root. Konfrontácia priniesla desivé obete. Taylorov pluk stratil 250 mužov z 550 zapojených a 26. Severná Karolína, ktorá bojovala vedľa 11., utrpela v boji viac ako 500 obetí. 24. Michigan by prišiel o 73 percent svojich počtov, vrátane 99 zabitých a smrteľne zranených, čo je najväčší počet obetí v rámci akéhokoľvek pluku Únie v bitke pri Gettysburgu. Listami napísanými prísahou po bitke. Taylor aj Root opísali tvrdý boj o lesy farmára Herbsta:

Dostal som tvoje 19. a môžete si byť istí, že ma to veľmi potešilo. Mám sa dobre a nedostal som žiadne poranenia. Bol som zasiahnutý výstrelom z hrozna, ale bolo to známe. O! ponožka sa mi prestrelila a pošva bola zasiahnutá pochvou meča, aby si si vedel predstaviť, aké hrubé boli gule. V posledný júnový deň sa naša brigáda presunula smerom na Gettesburg a keď sme blízko mesta počuli, že v okolí je nepriateľ v moci, pochodovali sme asi štyri míle späť a tam sme sa na noc utáborili a nasledujúci deň naša divízia pochodovala smerom k mestu. Generál Davis slečna brigáda pred nami, takže otvorili boj a naša brigáda im uľavila a mali ste vidieť našu brigádu, keď sa nabila, hnali sme nepriateľa ako ovečky. bolo to cez otvorené staré pole a stálo to strašne veľa, ale zaplatili sme im to dvojnásobne. Železná brigáda Yankeys sa pokúsila postaviť, ale bolo to známe, stáli sme asi 20 minút od seba asi 15 minút, ale museli ustúpiť a keď [to] urobili, jednoducho sme ich kosili. okamžite sme mali 8 zabitých na poli a 2 zranených, ktorí zomreli od prvého dňa mimo našej spoločnosti.

PORUČÍK WILLIAM B. TAYLOR, FIRMA B, 11. SEVERNÁ KAROLÍNA (GNMP)

1. júl Pamätné stredajšie ráno sme dostali rozkaz na pochod a išli sme ďalej, kým nás prasknutie muškiet a rachot dela nezastavili. Ale netrvalo dlho a išli sme k nepriateľovi bez toho, aby sme nabili svoje zbrane a oni volly za volly do našich radov, z ktorých jeden vybil nositeľa ušľachtilej farby. Napriek tomu sme išli a súčasne nabili zbrane a postavili sa do radu. A potom bol na nich rozkaz a my sme dobili a zajali celú ich bojovú líniu, alebo väčšinu z nich. Počet väzňov neviem, ale všetci boli pochodovaní dozadu a v bezpečí.

Doteraz sme vyhrali deň, ale stálo nás to mnoho životov, z ktorých jeden bol náš generálmajor Reynolds a ďalší, na ktorých nemám čas spomínať.

Teraz sme klesli späť na krátku vzdialenosť a ležali sme v lese [Herbst Woods] asi 3 hodiny, ale vpredu sa neustále bojovalo. A asi o 16:00 hod. videli sme, ako Rebovia vstupujú do platnosti s tromi bojovými líniami s tou našou a bolo nám hanebne nariadené postaviť ich bez podpory jednotiek alebo kanónu. Stáli sme teda v rade a strieľali celých 20 minút, kým do našej strieľali tri šnúry. Potom, čo sme boli všetci porazení, nariadili ústup, ktorý bol urobený v určitom zmätku, ale len málo ľudí sa vrátilo bez škrabancov a mnohí vôbec.

Skutočne si poslušný
Veľký syn
R. Root

Do tejto doby, asi o 16:00, si generál Howard uvedomil, že očakávané posily z dvanásteho zboru nedorazia včas. Prikázal prvému a jedenástemu zboru, aby spadli späť cez mesto na Cemetery Hill, výšku, ktorá sa na jeho základni týčila 100 stôp nad južným okrajom mesta a zakrývala východy ciest Emmitsburg a Taneytown a Baltimore Pike. Dva zbory nemali inú možnosť. V menšine a bez bokov boli vyhnaní zo svojich pozícií severne a západne od Gettysburgu.

Nanešťastie bolo vykonaných niekoľko príprav na ústup cez Gettysburg, ale nebola to cesta. Spoločníci, obzvlášť z Hillovho zboru a Rodesovej divízie, boli pri svojom víťazstve ťažko zdrvení a neútočili na svoj útok pomstou. Federálne delostrelectvo sa po meste pohybovalo v dobrom stave, niektoré pluky Únie, ako 6. Wisconsin, bojovali proti akciám zadnej stráže. Časť 45. New Yorku jedenásteho zboru, ktorej ústup bol prerušený, v meste odolávala, kým odpor nebol pre mnohých márny, potom sa stali väzňami. A potom boli tu tí, ktorí prudko utiekli alebo boli medzi 3600 vojakmi Únie zajatými v ten deň.

Skoro popoludní poslal Meade na pole majora generála Winfielda S. Hancocka, veliteľa druhého zboru Únie, aby prevzal velenie nad tamojšími silami, ak by Reynolds bol neschopný. Hancock mal Meadeovi poradiť, či by potomková armáda mala bojovať pri Gettysburgu, alebo by mala ustúpiť späť do Pipe Creek. Hancock dosiahol Cemetery Hill, keď Howard a Doubleday zhromažďovali porazené sily. Howard, Doubleday a Hancock rýchlo vyslali na cintorínsky kopec zvyšok síl Únie, možno 9 000 mužov. Väčšina delostrelectva dvoch zborov Únie, asi štyridsať zbraní, bola čoskoro pripravená na obranu kopca. Zdá sa však, že Hill's Corps nie je v stave tlačiť na takýto útok. Lee nechal rozhodnutie na Ewella a Ewell, ktorý nedokázal predvídať Hillovu pomoc a na prácu mal k dispozícii iba dve brigády, sa múdro rozhodol nezaútočiť na sily Únie na kopci. Bitka 1. júla sa skončila tým, že deň konfederáti zvíťazili, ale nebolo to rozhodujúce víťazstvo. Čakali ich ďalšie boje.


Obsah

Leeova armáda vyhrala dôležitú bitku pri Chancellorsville vo Virgínii v máji 1863. [10] Potom viedol svoju armádu na sever údolím Shenandoah. Jeho plánom bolo začať druhú inváziu na Sever (nazývanú kampaň v Gettysburgu). [10] Lee mal na mysli niekoľko cieľov. [10] Mal v úmysle obsadiť Harrisburg v Pensylvánii, hlavné mesto štátu. [10] Dúfal, že by to uviedlo do rozpakov Lincolnovu administratívu [10] a prinútilo severných politikov vojnu vzdať. V tomto mieste Lee hral politiku. [10] Vedel, že ak bude úspešný v Pensylvánii, povzbudí to severné mierové hnutie. Dúfal, že to konfederácii prinesie zahraničné uznanie. [10] Mohlo by to tiež prinútiť Úniu rokovať o mieri, čo by umožnilo štátom Konfederácie stať sa nezávislou krajinou. [10] Lee veľmi potreboval zásoby a chcel ich dostať v Pensylvánii. [b] Harrisburg bol nielen hlavným mestom štátu, ale aj miestom tábora Curtin, najväčšieho výcvikového tábora pre vojakov Únie. [13] Bolo to hlavné železničné centrum. [13] Čo je dôležitejšie, bol to hlavný sklad zásobovania a tiež tábor zajatcov. [14]

Na severe Lincoln povedal generálmajorovi Josephovi Hookerovi, aby armáda Únie nasledovala Leeovu armádu. [9] Hooker sa však veľmi zdráhal ísť za spoločníkmi. Nakoniec k nemu Lincoln stratil všetku dôveru. [9] 28. júna, tri dni pred bitkou pri Gettysburgu, Lincoln vymenoval generála Meadeho, aby nahradil Hookera. [9] Keby Konfederácia vyhrala, konfederačné sily by mali prístup do Philadelphie alebo Baltimoru. [15] Viceprezident Hannibal Hamlin išiel do Lincolnu, aby diskutoval o vojnovom zajatcovi päť dní pred bitkou pri Gettysburgu. [15]

Ani Lee, ani Meade neplánovali, aby sa bitka odohrala v Gettysburgu, ani tam neboli, keď sa bitka začala. [16] 30. júna 1863 mal generál spoločníka Henry Heth divíziu v Cashtowne v Pensylvánii, kde sa Lee zhromaždil, a potom sa presťahoval do Harrisburgu. Heth poslal svoju divíziu do neďalekého Gettysburgu, aby hľadala, ako neskôr napísal vo svojej správe, „armádne zásoby (obzvlášť obuv) a vráťte sa v ten istý deň“. [17] Tým sa začal mýtus, že bitka pri Gettysburgu sa začala cez topánky. [c] [17] Heth to urobil bez toho, aby dopredu hľadal, čo je v Gettysburgu. Skautská práca patrila konfederačnej kavalérii pod vedením J.E.B. Stuart. [17] Ale boli preč viac ako týždeň. [17] Takže jeho vojaci slepí k tomu, čo ich čakalo, vbehli priamo do divízie kavalérie Únie, ktorej velil generál John Buford. [16] Tým sa začali boje napriek tomu, že Heth a ďalší velitelia mali od Leeho rozkaz nezačať bitku. [17] Keď však každá strana priviedla viac vojakov, stala sa bitka v plnom rozsahu. [16] Lee tam začal presúvať veľkú časť svojej armády. Jedným z jeho cieľov bolo bojovať proti armáde Únie a zničiť ju. Teraz by to musel urobiť v Gettysburgu.

Ráno 1. júla okolo 5.30 hod. Sa bitka začala. Heth opatrne sondovala dopredu do bodu asi dve míle západne od Gettysburgu. [20] Buford's cavalry was deliberately slowing his progress. At about 10 a.m. the Union I Corps arrived commanded by General John F. Reynolds. [20] They set themselves up along McPherson's Ridge to oppose Heth's Confederates. During the fighting Reynolds was killed but the Confederates were driven back. Meanwhile, both sides brought up reinforcements. [20] The Union set up defenses of the town with I Corps defending the western approaches with XI Corps to the north. The flanks were covered by Buford's cavalry. One Union division was held in reserve on Cemetery Ridge. In the afternoon, when Lee arrived, the Confederates still did not know the strength of the Union forces they were facing. [20] They also had not scouted the terrain. [20] One division of Ewell's Corps had attacked the Union I Corps just after noon. [20] At about 2 p.m. Heth's division joined Ewell's troops in the attack on I Corps. [20] At about 3 p.m., another of Ewell's Confederate divisions, commanded by General Jubal Early, attacked the flank of the Union XI Corps. [20] By 4 p.m., both of the Union corps retreated through Gettysburg and took up positions on Cemetery Ridge. [20] So far, the Union had lost about 9,000 men including about 3,000 who had been captured. [20] The Confederates had lost about 6,500 men by this point. [20] So the first day of battle was technically a Confederate victory numbers-wise. But Federal troops held the high ground as more reinforcements were still arriving. [20] Based on the first day's fighting, Lee was convinced he could defeat Meade at Gettysburg. [20]

Late in the day, Lee sent the famous order to Confederate General Richard S. Ewell to take cemetery ridge "if practicable.” [d] [10] While he had been awaiting orders from Lee, Ewell had ridden out to take a closer look at Cemetery Ridge. [23] Based on what he saw and the confusing order, he decided it was not practicable to take the hill and set up camp. [22] Instead, he decided to leave the assault for the next day. This was the first major mistake of the battle for the South. The Army of the Potomac would end the day with around 21,900 men strongly positioned on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Ridge. The Army of Northern Virginia would have around 27,000 men from Benner's Hill to Seminary Ridge.

On the second day of battle, most of both armies had arrived. The Union line held the high ground in a defensive formation that looked like a fishhook. On July 2, Lee ordered General James Longstreet, commander of the Confederate I Corps, to attack the Union left flank as early in the day as possible. [24] At the same time General A. P. Hill's corps was to attack the Union center. [24] General Ewell was to make diversionary attacks and "if practicable" attack the Union Army's right flank. [24] Lee felt that if everything went according to his plan and the Union line was destroyed, the battle, and possibly the war, would be won on the second day. [24] Lee's coordinated attack required getting all the infantry into position and moving up artillery to support them. [25] Longstreet had the furthest to go and midway in their march realized the Union lines could see them. They went back and had to take a different route. [25] Longstreet could not get his corps into position until about 4 p.m. when he began his attack. [25] His attack on the Union line lasted for over three hours but could not break the Union line. [25] Hill's Corps failed to be effective in the center. [25] Ewell did not attack Cemetery Ridge as instructed in Lee's confusing order, but made some progress in taking Culp's Hill. [25]

Union Major General Daniel Sickles, a political general commanding III Corps, disobeyed Meade's orders and moved his troops forward to the Peach Orchard. [26] He had been ordered to take up a position on Little Round Top connecting with Union forces on both his right and left. By doing this he left a large hole in the Union line. He marched to a position nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) in front of the Union line with no support on either side. [27] Within an hour, his entire III Corps was nearly wiped out by Longstreet. [27] Sickles was badly wounded by a cannonball and lost a leg. Being wounded was all that saved him from a court-martial. [27] Sickles' blunder nearly lost the entire battle for the Union. [28]

On the night of July 2, Longstreet's largest division commanded by General George Pickett arrived and was placed in the center of the Confederate line. Lee's plan for the next day was to attack on both the Union right and left, just as he had done the day before. [29] Lee was still certain he could break the Union line and win the battle. [29] That day Stuart's cavalry had caught up with Lee's army and Lee ordered Stuart to ride around the East side of Gettysburg and attack the Union rear. [29] Ewell had also been reinforced and was ordered to take Culp's Hill the next morning. [29]

Meade ordered the Union XII Corps to drive Ewell's forces off the captured trenches on Culp's Hill. [29] They were to move at daylight the next morning. [29] He was determined the remainder of the Union Army would hold its position and wait for Lee to attack. [29]

Ewell began fighting on Culp's Hill at first light. [29] Lee rode to Longstreet's headquarters only to find Longstreet had misunderstood his orders. [29] He was planning a turning movement against the Union left. Now, with no hope of a coordinated attack, Lee changed the plan. Longstreet was to attack the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. Ewell's forces failed in their counterattacks and were forced to withdraw from Culp's Hill by about 11:00 a.m. [29] Lee pinned all his hopes on Longstreet's attack on the center. [30] Longstreet had the last fresh division in Lee's army. [30] It was made up of three brigades, commanded by generals James L. Kemper, Richard B. Garnett, and Lewis A. Armistead, led by Pickett. [30]

Cannons Edit

First, a bombardment by about 140 Confederate cannons on the Union lines was ordered. [29] The bombardment started about 1 p.m. [31] About 80 Union cannons returned fire. [32] The cannons duel lasted for between one and two hours, depending on the source (most say about an hour). [31] The Confederate artillery chief, General Edward Porter Alexander, had only intended it to last for about 25 minutes. [31] But he then realized it had done little damage to the Union line so he continued. [31] But he also had to worry about running out of ammunition and not have enough to support the charge that was Pickett was about to make. [31] When the Union guns fell silent, Porter thought he had knocked them out. [31] But it was a trick by the Union artillery chief. [31] His guns were waiting for the charge the Union forces knew was coming. Alexander sent word to Pickett he could start his attack.

The cannonade could be heard as far away as Philadelphia. [33] The noise was so loud the gunner's ears bled. [34] It was probably the loudest noise that had ever been heard on the North American continent up to that time. [33] In the end the Confederate cannons may have killed as many as 200 Union soldiers in the area that would later become known as the "bloody angle". [31] But the Union guns may have killed more Confederate troops. [31]

Pickett's Charge Edit

Calling the Confederate attack on the Union center "Pickett's Charge" is misleading for two reasons. [35] First, Pickett commanded only one of the three units in the assault. [35] Second, it was not a charge, which is a rapid advance towards the enemy, it was an attack which moved forward more slowly and over a longer distance. [35] These Virginia units were joined by several smaller units of Confederates (some from North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama) whose numbers had been reduced by the fighting over the first two days. [30] When the cannons stopped, Pickett went to Longstreet to ask permission to begin the attack. [34] Longstreet, sure the attack would fail, silently nodded his head and gave a wave of his hand. [34] Longstreet had tried to get Lee to call off the attack, but Lee would not listen. [34]

Over 12,000 Confederates stepped out from the trees and formed up for the long march forward. [34] Waiting for them behind a low stone fence on Cemetery Ridge were about 5,000 Union troops, most of whom belonged to General Winfield Scott Hancock's II Corps. [30] Depending on the source, this was between 2:00 and 3:00 p.m. [30] As they marched forward across the 1 mile (1.6 km) distance, Union artillery killed large numbers of troops. [36] Rifle fire from the Union line was intense. The Union troops used four lines of soldiers. [35] As the line in front fired, they moved back to reload while the next line moved up to fire. [35] Only a few hundred of the Virginians reached the Union line. Within minutes they were dead or dying. [36] Some were captured. The attack lasted about an hour with over 7,000 Confederate soldiers killed. [36] As the remaining Confederate troops retreated, Lee was seen riding his horse saying "this was all my fault". [37] He then told Pickett to rally his division. Pickett famously replied, "General, I have no division." [37]

At about the same time as the main attack, Stuart's cavalry attacked the Union rear but the attack also failed. [38]

Lee brought an army into Pennsylvania that numbered 75,054 men and lost 22,638 casualties or about 30% of his army. [39] Meade lost so many field grade officers that the Army of the Potomac would not recover for the rest of the war. [39] Both the Union I Corps and III Corps lost so many men they had to be combined with II Corps. [39] The battle took more American lives than any other battle in United States history. Gettysburg is still the largest battle to ever be fought on American soil. The Union victory over the Confederacy ended Lee's invasion of the north. Lee would never try to invade the Union again. The Army of Northern Virginia would never get their strength back. However the supplies taken during their time in Pennsylvania would keep the Confederate army going. [40] The wagon train of supply wagons and ambulances for the wounded was over 17 miles (27 km) long. [40] Lee never had more than 51,000 men the rest of the war. Numbers from the Union forces wore down Lee and his army. This is why Gettysburg is said to be the turning point of the American Civil War. After the battle the confederates figured out that there was a slave spy. [41]

Meade was severely criticized for not counterattacking Lee after the third day of battle. The next day Meade sent out skirmishers, but did not attack. [42] Lee had his army hold its position on Seminary Ridge all day on July 4. The more than 10,000 wounded men would be moved by wagon train 40 miles (64 km) to Williamsport and cross the Potomac to Virginia. The rest of Lee's army followed on the night of July 4–5, screened by Jeb Stuart's cavalry. [42] The next day, on discovering the Confederates had left the battlefield, the Union army cautiously followed. At the Battle of Falling Waters, Lee's army was waiting for the flooded Potomac River to go down so his army could cross. Meade's forces caught up with them there but the battle had no clear victor. The Battle of Falling Waters was the last battle in the Gettysburg Campaign. [43]


16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment

The 16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment was organized for one year’s service at Raleigh as the 6th Infantry Regiment Volunteers under the command of Colonel Stephen Lee, Lieutenant Colonel Robert G.A. Love, and Major Benjamin F. Briggs.

Company A – Jackson County – Captain Andrew W. Coleman
Company B – Madison County – Captain John Peek
Company C – Yancey County – Captain John S. McElroy
Company D – Rutherford County – Captain Herbert D. Lee
Company E – Burke County – “Burke Tigers” – Captain Elijah J. Kirksey
Company F – Buncombe County – Captain Patrick H. Thrash
Company G – Rutherford County – Captain Champion T.N. Davis
Company H – Macon County – Captain Thomas M. Angel
Company I – Henderson County – Captain William M. Shipp
Company K – Polk County – “Carolina Boys” – Captain John C. Camp
Company L – Haywood County – Captain Elisha G. Johnston
Company M – Gaston County – Captain William A. Stowe

Cheat Mountain
Siege of Yorktown

The regiment was reorganized for the duration of the war. Company N (“Rutherford Rifles” – Rutherford County) was added. Captain Champion T.N. Davis of Company G was elected colonel, Captain John S. McElroy of Company C was elected lieutenant colonel, and Captain William Stowe of Company M was elected major.

The new company officers were:
Company A -Captain James R. Love
Company B – Captain Solomon W. Carter
Company C – Captain Creed F. Young
Company D – Captain Adolphus A. McKinney
Company E – Captain Elijah J. Kirksey (reected)
Company F – Captain Henry C. Worley
Company G – Captain Lawson Pinkney Erwin
Company H – Captain James L. Robinson
Company I – Captain William B. Whitaker
Company K – Captain John C. Camp (reelected)
Company L – Captain Alden G. Howell
Company M – Captain Leroy W. Stowe
Company N – James W. Kilpatrick (reelected)

Battle of Seven Pines

Colonel Davis was killed. Lieutenant Colonel McElroy was promoted to colonel and Major Stowe to lieutenant colonel.

Company M was transferred to the 56th North Carolina Infantry Regiment as Company I.

Seven Days Battles

The regiment lost lost 33 men killed and 199 wounded in the week’s fighting.

Beaver Dam Creek
Battle of Gaines’ Mill
Frayser’s Farm

Captain Andrew W. Coleman, of Company A was killed. Lieutenant A.W. Bryson took command until he was wounded, and the company ended the battle under the command of Sergeant John S. Keener.

Battle of Cedar Mountain
Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment lost 8 men killed and 44 wounded.

Battle of Ox Hill (Chantilly)

Crossed the Potomac River.

Reached Frederick, Maryland.

Capture of Harpers Ferry
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William A. Stowe.

From the War Department marker for Pender’s Brigade along Harpers Ferry Road at Antietam:

Pender’s Brigade left Harpers Ferry at 7:30 A.M. of September 17, crossed the Potomac by Blackford’s Ford and reached this road about 3 P.M. It was placed in position near this point to guard the approaches to the battlefield from the lower Antietam. It was exposed to the long range Infantry and Artillery fire of the enemy but was not otherwise actively engaged.

Late in the day it was moved to the left, and on the morning of the 18th, took position on the left of Branch’s Brigade, where it remained until it was withdrawn to recross the Potomac.

Shepherdstown Ford
Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment lost 6 men killed and 48 wounded. Colonel MeElroy was wounded and disabled. Lieutenant Colonel Stowe was promoted to colonel.

Battle of Chancellorsville

The regiment lost 105 casualties. Colonel Stowe was wounded.

Bitka pri Gettysburgu

The regiment was commanded at Gettysburg by Captain Leroy W. Stowe. It brought 321 men to the field and lost 72 casualties.

From the monument to Scales’ Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. relieving Heth’s line and advancing with left flank on Chambersburg Pike took part in the struggle until it ended. When the Union forces made their final stand on Seminary Ridge the Brigade charged and aided in dislodging them but suffered heavy losses. Gen. A. M. Scales was wounded and all the field officers but one were killed or wounded.

July 2. In position near here with skirmishers out in front and on flank.

July 3. In Longstreet’s assault the Brigade supported the right wing of Pettigrew’s Division. With few officers to lead them the men advanced in good order through a storm of shot and shell and when the front line neared the Union works they pushed forward to aid it in the final struggle and were among the last to retire.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.


Union General Abner Doubleday Forever Seethed About ‘Unfair Treatment’ At Gettysburg

The Battle of Gettysburg stood supreme in its ability to spark postwar controversies among officers in both the Confederate and Union high commands. Infighting among former generals of the Army of Northern Virginia has garnered the most attention from historians, resulting in a sizable literature that features James Longstreet playing villain to Jubal A. Early and other Lost Cause warriors who sought to absolve Robert E. Lee of all responsibility for defeat. J.E.B. Stuart, Richard S. Ewell, and A.P. Hill held supporting roles in these long-running debates that filled many pages in the Southern Historical Society Papers, personal memoirs, and other publications.

On the United States side, Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles’ decision on July 2 to abandon his position on Cemetery Ridge and occupy a line stretching from the Klingel Farm along the Emmitsburg Road to Devil’s Den generated the most acrimony. Congress helped fuel the fires among Union generals because the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War solicited and published testimony from many of the key actors.

Few officers on either side nursed a deeper sense of grievance than Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday. New York-born and a graduate of West Point in 1842, he fought as an artillerist during the war with Mexico. During the secession crisis, he served under Major Robert Anderson as a captain in the 1st U.S. Artillery stationed at Fort Sumter. He commanded the 2nd Division in Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds’ 1st Corps at Fredericksburg and, in the spring of 1863, took charge of the 3rd Division in that corps and led it at Chancellorsville (his troops played insignificant roles in both battles). Still head of the 3rd Division on July 1 at Gettysburg, he assumed corps command after Reynolds’ wounding and led it for the rest of the day.

That evening, based largely on 11th Corps commander Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard’s reporting to Winfield Scott Hancock that “Doubleday’s command gave way” during the chaotic late- afternoon fighting, army commander George G. Meade placed the 1st Corps under John Newton. Seething at what he considered unfair treatment (Newton was junior to him in rank), Doubleday returned to the 3rd Division for the rest of the battle but soon left the Army of the Potomac. He never held another field command during the war, spending much of his time on courts-martial in Washington, D.C.

Howard and Meade had incurred the New Yorker’s enduring wrath, a fact made evident in Doubleday’s Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. Written as part of Scribner’s “Campaigns of the Civil War” series and published in 1882, the book bristled with criticism of the pair. Especially upset with Howard’s unfair insinuation that the 1st Corps collapsed prior to the retreat of the 11th Corps on July 1, Doubleday observed: “General Howard hastened to send a special messenger to General Meade with the baleful intelligence that the 1st Corps had fled from the field at the first contact with the enemy….[T]his astounding news created the greatest feeling against the corps, who were loudly cursed for their supposed lack of spirit and patriotism.” Doubleday also averred that Reynolds, rather than Howard, deserved credit for selecting Cemetery Hill as a position of great strength.

Maj. Gen. Abner Doubelday briefly took over the Army of the Potomac’s 1st Corps at Gettysburg after Maj. Gen. John Reynolds was killed on the morning of July 1, 1863, pictured here. (Niday Picture Library/Alamy Stock Photo)

As for Meade, Doubleday portrayed him as timid and eager to abandon the field after the second day’s action. “At night a council of war was held,” he wrote with clear malice, “in which it was unanimously voted to stay and fight it out. Meade was displeased with the result, and although he acquiesced in the decision, he said angrily, ‘Have it your own way, gentlemen, but Gettysburg is no place to fight a battle in.’”

The army’s new chief, added Doubleday, had been rattled by the fierce Confederate attacks on July 2 and “thought it better to retreat with what he had, than run the risk of losing all.” Doubleday buttressed his version of events with a long footnote that acknowledged a “public discussion” about Meade’s intentions on the night of the 2nd. “There is no question in my mind,” he reiterated in the note, “that, at the council referred to, General Meade did desire to retreat….” The aftermath of Pickett’s Charge, Doubleday suggested, similarly showed Meade’s indecisiveness. At the critical moment at Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington had ordered, “Up, guards, and at them!” In contrast, “General Meade had made no arrangements to give a return thrust.”

Howard surely knew about Doubleday’s vituperative comments but chose not to respond in his own memoirs. Published in two thick volumes in 1907 as Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, Major General United States Army, they mentioned Doubleday’s actions at Gettysburg in purely descriptive passages. After chronicling hard pressure on both the 1st and 11th Corps after 3:30 p.m. on July 1, Howard stated simply that with firing “growing worse and worse” he determined that the “front lines could not hold out much longer.” “I will not attempt to describe the action further…,” he continued. “The order I sent to Doubleday then was this: ‘If you cannot hold out longer, you must fall back to the cemetery and take position on the left of the Baltimore Pike.’”

Meade reacted with more emotion. Doubleday’s testimony before the Joint Committee, which anticipated criticisms he leveled in Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, spurred Meade to complain to his wife in early March 1864 about “the explosion of the conspiracy to have me relieved…in which the Committee on the Conduct of the War, with Generals Doubleday and Sickles, are the agents.” The two-volume edition of Meade’s letters, published in 1913, included as an appendix a newspaper article by Sickles printed in The New York Times on April 1, 1883, that detailed Meade’s “Proposed Retreat on the Night of the 2nd of July.” Another appendix offered a stinging reply to Doubleday’s version of events, pronouncing General Meade’s actions “utterly inconsistent…with any such intention as that ascribed to him by General Doubleday.”

Impartial observers can find admirable and self-interested behavior and statements from Doubleday, Meade, and Howard regarding Gettysburg. Modern visitors to the battlefield will find statues to all three men that face resolutely toward the enemy.


Scales’ Brigade

The brigade was commanded at the Battle of Gettysburg by Brigadier General Alfred Scales, a North Carolina lawyer and politician.

On July 1st it took part in a costly charge against the final Union line on Seminary Ridge. General Scales was badly wounded in the leg and every field officer in the brigade except two were killed or wounded.

The brigade was left in reserve on July 2nd, but on the 3rd it was included in the attack that came to be known as Pickett’s Charge. Colonel William L.J. Lowrance of the 34th North Carolina Infantry led the brigade in the charge. He had also had been wounded on the 1st, but not as severely as Scales.

Lanes’ and Scales’ brigades together could field no more than 800 men for the assault. Many were wounded to some extent. Nevertheless Scales’ North Carolinians made one of the furthest advances of the charge, leading to a controversy with Pickett’s Virginians over who went the farthest at Gettysburg which goes on to this day.

Text from the monument

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. relieving Heth’s line and advancing with left flank on Chambersburg Pike took part in the struggle until it ended. When the Union forces made their final stand on Seminary Ridge the Brigade charged and aided in dislodging them but suffered heavy losses. Gen. A. M. Scales was wounded and all the field officers but one were killed or wounded.

July 2. In position near here with skirmishers out in front and on flank.

July 3. In Longstreet’s assault the Brigade supported the right wing of Pettigrew’s Division. With few officers to lead them the men advanced in good order through a storm of shot and shell and when the front line neared the Union works they pushed forward to aid it in the final struggle and were among the last to retire.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.


The Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863

American Minute with Bill Federer

Washington, D.C., was in a panic!

72,000 Confederate troops were just sixty miles away near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

What led up to this Battle?

After the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee was under a time deadline.

Mounting casualties of the war were causing Lincoln’s popularity to fall, so if Lee could get a quick victory at Gettysburg, he could pressure Lincoln to a truce.

But this window of opportunity was fast closing, as Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was about to capture Vicksburg on the Mississippi, which would divide the Confederacy and free up thousands of Union troops to fight Lee in the east.

Unfortunately for Lee, his tremendously successful General, “Stonewall” Jackson, had died two months earlier, having been mistakenly shot by his own men.

On the Union side, Lincoln replaced Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker with Maj. Gen. George Meade to command the 94,000 men of the Union Army of the Potomac.

The Battle of Gettysburg began July 1, 1863.

After two days of intense combat, with ammunition running low, General Robert E. Lee ordered a direct attack.

Confederate General James Longstreet disagreed with Lee’s plan resulting in his delayed advance till after all the Confederate artillery had been spent, leaving no cover fire.

Historians speculate that if General Longstreet had made a timely attack, the Confederates may have won the day.

As it happened, 12,500 Confederate soldiers marched across a mile of open field without artillery cover to make “Pickett’s Charge” directly into the Union position at Cemetery Ridge.

An hour of murderous fire and bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued, followed by the Confederates being pushed back.

The Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863, with over 50,000 casualties.

The next day, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River.

When news reached London, all hopes of Europe recognizing the Confederacy were lost.

For the next two years, the South was on the defensive.

On July 5, 1863, President Lincoln and his son visited General Daniel E. Sickles, who had his leg blown off at Gettysburg.

General James F. Rusling recorded that when General Sickles asked Lincoln if he was anxious before the Battle, Lincoln answered:

“No, I was not some of my Cabinet and many others in Washington were, but I had no fears …”

“In the pinch of your campaign up there, when everybody seemed panic-stricken, and nobody could tell what was going to happen, oppressed by the gravity of our affairs, I went to my room one day,

and I locked the door, and got down on my knees before Almighty God, and prayed to Him mightily for victory at Gettysburg.

I told Him that this was His war, and our cause His cause, but we couldn’t stand another Fredericksburg or Chancellorsville.

And I then and there made a solemn vow to Almighty God, that if He would stand by our boys at Gettysburg, I would stand by Him …”

“And He did stand by you boys, and I will stand by Him.

And after that (I don’t know how it was, and I can’t explain it), soon a sweet comfort crept into my soul that God Almighty had taken the whole business into his own hands and that things would go all right at Gettysburg.”

Twelve days after the Battle of Gettysburg, July 15, 1863, Lincoln proclaimed a Day of Prayer:

“It is meet and right to recognize and confess the presence of the Almighty Father and the power of His hand equally in these triumphs and in these sorrows …

I invite the people of the United States to … render the homage due to the Divine Majesty for the wonderful things He has done in the nation’s behalf and invoke the influence of His Holy Spirit to subdue the anger which has produced and so long sustained a needless and cruel rebellion.”

In his Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln ended:

“We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom —

and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Years later at the Gettysburg Battlefield, President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated May 30, 1934:

“On these hills of Gettysburg two brave armies of Americans once met in contest …

Since those days, two subsequent wars, both with foreign Nations, have measurably … softened the ancient passions.

It has been left to us of this generation to see the healing made permanent.”

President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, September 17, 1937:

“I came into the world 17 years after the close of the war between the States … Today … there are still many among us who can remember it …

It serves us little to discuss again the rights and the wrongs of the long 4-years’ war … We can but wish that the war had never been. We can and we do revere the memory of the brave men who fought on both sides …

But we know today that it was best … for the generations of Americans who have come after them, that the conflict did not end in a division of our land into two nations.

I like to think that it was the will of God that we remain one people.”

At the Confederate Memorial in Arlington Cemetery, President Coolidge said, May 25, 1924:

“It was Lincoln who pointed out that both sides prayed to the same God. When that is the case, it is only a matter of time when each will seek a common end.

We can now see clearly what that end is. It is the maintenance of our American ideals, beneath a common flag, under the blessings of Almighty God.”

In his 3rd Inaugural Address, President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, January 20, 1941:

“The spirit of America … is the product of centuries … born in the multitudes of those who came from many lands …

Demokratická ašpirácia nie je len nedávnou fázou ľudských dejín. It is human history …

Its vitality was written into our own Mayflower Compact, into the Declaration of Independence, into the Constitution of the United States, into the Gettysburg Address …

If the spirit of America were killed, even though the Nation’s body … lived on, the America we know would have perished.”

Self-Educated American Contributing Editor, William J. Federer, is the bestselling author of “Backfired: A Nation Born for Religious Tolerance no Longer Tolerates Religion,” and numerous other books. A frequent radio and television guest, his daily American Minute is broadcast nationally via radio, television, and Internet. Check out all of Bill’s books here.


Battle of Gettysburg Ends: On This Day, July 3

The Battle of Gettysburg, fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, from July 1 to July 3, 1863, ended with a victory for Union General George Meade and the Army of the Potomac.

The three-day battle was the bloodiest in the war, with approximately 51,000 casualties. Even with such heavy losses, it proved to be a significant victory for the Union. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, under General Robert E. Lee, had invaded Union territory and was moving through southern Pennsylvania with an eye to Harrisburg, the state capital. General Lee hoped that defeating the Union army in a large battle on Northern territory would deliver a great, perhaps final blow to the war-weary United States. But the Union victory effectively ended the Confederate invasion of the North and provided a much-needed boost of morale for US soldiers and civilians alike.

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought not only on the field, but on the streets of Gettysburg as well. On July 1, Confederate soldiers chased retreating Union soldiers through the town, then looted homes and cellars for valuables, clothing, and food. Despite this initial Union retreat, the battle ended on July 3 with Pickett’s Charge, in which a force of 15,000 Confederate soldiers charged through open fields at Union lines but failed to break through them.

In this video, take a virtual tour of the battlefield with historian Matthew Pinsker, Associate Professor of History and Pohanka Chair in American Civil War History, Dickinson College, as he provides a guide to the battle’s most important locations.


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